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Big/Small Cats in Australasian Zoos – News, History and Discussion

Discussion in 'Australia' started by Zoofan15, 30 Nov 2017.

  1. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

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    Introduction

    I have created this thread for the purpose of learning more about the exotic cat species kept in our region: past, present and future.


    Past context includes people sharing historical information on exotic cats (such as data), posting news articles they’ve found from the past or their own personal experiences with exotic cats.

    Present context is news i.e. what’s currently happening in our region’s zoos. It could be the birth of a litter of cubs/kittens, the results of a naming competition or the transfer of exotic cats between zoos, including imports and exports from/to zoos outside the region.

    Future context relates to discussions on the future of exotic cats in our region’s zoos i.e. the future of a breeding programme, or people discussing what species they’d like to see imported into the region.


    I will be updating this thread every Friday over the summer with research I’ve been doing, including discussion, but be would even more interested to hear from others, especially those with historical knowledge about exotic cats in our region.
     
  2. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

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    Taronga Zoo Sumatran Tigers - Early History

    The founding pair were a male named Nico (born 1976) and a female named Meta (born 1975), who arrived in 1979 from Rotterdam Zoo.

    Nico and Meta produced six litters at Taronga Zoo:

    Litter One:

    Unnamed (U)

    Born 12 October 1980
    Died <30 days

    Mandau (M)
    Born 12 October 1980
    Sent to Ueno Zoo 1982 (Died 1990)

    Musara (F)
    Born 12 October 1980
    Sent to Ueno Zoo 1982 (Died 2001)

    Litter Two:

    Unnamed (U)

    Born 17 December 1982
    Died <30 days

    Unnamed (U)
    Born 17 December 1982
    Died <30 days

    Unnamed (F)

    Born 17 December 1982
    Died <30 days

    Litter Three:

    Unnamed (U)
    Born 2 December 1983
    Died <30 days

    Unnamed (U)
    Born 2 December 1983
    Died <30 days

    Unnamed (M)
    Born 2 December 1983
    Died <30 days

    Sinta (F)

    Born 2 December 1983
    Sent to San Diego Zoo 1986 (Died 1986)

    Litter Four:

    Unnamed (U)
    Born 12 March 1985
    Died <30 days

    Unnamed (U)
    Born 12 March 1985
    Died <30 days

    Lunka (F)
    Born 12 March 1985
    Died <6 months

    Usha (F)
    Born 12 March 1985
    Sent to San Diego Zoo 1987 (Died 1997)

    Litter Five:

    Unnamed (U)
    Born 6 September 1985
    Died <30 days

    Shiva (M)
    Born 6 September 1985
    Remained at Taronga Zoo (Died 2002)

    Kali (F)
    Born 6 September 1985
    Sent to San Diego Zoo 1987 (Died 2008)

    Litter Six:

    Unnamed (F)
    Born 23 November 1988
    Died <3 months

    Jambi (M)
    Born 23 November 1988
    Sent to Wellington Zoo 1992 (Died 2001)

    Shiva (born 1985) was then paired with Selatan (born 1990), who arrived in 1992 from Melbourne Zoo.

    Shiva and Selatan produced three litters at Taronga Zoo:

    Litter One:

    Unnamed (M)
    Born 18 November 1994
    Died <30 days

    Kemiri (F)
    Born 18 November 1994
    Sent to Adelaide Zoo 1995 (Died 2017)

    Litter Two:

    Juara (M)
    Born 26 October 1995
    Sent to Taronga Western Plains Zoo 1996 (Died 2014)

    Ramalon (M)
    Born 26 October 1995
    Sent to Taronga Western Plains Zoo 1996 (Died 2014)

    Lari (M)
    Born 26 October 1995
    Sent to Taronga Western Plains Zoo 1996 (Died UNK)

    Litter Three:

    Unnamed (U)
    Born 01 May 2001
    Died <30 days

    Unnamed (U)
    Born 01 May 2001
    Died <30 days

    It’s interesting to see that out of Meta’s six litters, two comprised of quadruplets. Litters of four cubs (or more) appear rare in captive Sumatran tigers but are probably more common than the general public/media are aware of. Press releases announcing the birth are generally not issued until the cubs emerge from the den at around 3 months, and by that time, the remaining cub/cubs in the litter are likely to survive.

    Aside from Meta’s litters, I’m only aware of two other cases of quadruplets in the region: one litter born to Setia at Perth Zoo in 2008 (one cub survived) and one born to Binjai at Melbourne Zoo in 2010 (all four cubs survived). There have likely been more in the region, with the litters being reduced to triplets or twins by the time of the press release. In Meta’s two litters of quadruplets (born 1983 and 1985), only one cub per litter survived to adulthood: Sinta (born 1983) and Usha (born 1985). Their littermates all died before the age of 3 months (most before 30 days).

    Nico and Meta died in 1992, aged 16 and 17 years respectively. They are the founding Sumatran tigers of the Australasian region as they were the first breeding pair and most of the tigers in the region today descend from their two youngest sons, Shiva (born 1985) and Jambi (born 1988). These days, it would be unusual for a tigress in the region to be allowed to have six litters. No tigress since Meta has been allowed to have more than three litters in their lifetime, and most have had one, two or none.

    Taronga Zoo hold the studbook for Sumatran tigers and have done since Nico and Meta’s arrival. They have so far, retained one tiger per generation of Nico and Meta’s descendants for breeding. They currently hold Jumilah (third generation), Kembali (fourth generation), Kartika (fourth generation) and Clarence (third generation).

    There have been some exceptionally long lived tigers in this line: Kali’s daughter, Djelita (born 1991), died at the Honolulu Zoo aged 25 years in 2016. This is the world record for longevity in captive Sumatran tigers; Shiva’s daughter, Kemiri (born 1994), died at the Adelaide Zoo aged 22 years in 2017. This is currently the regional record for longevity in captive Sumatran tigers.
     
    Last edited: 30 Nov 2017
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  3. zooboy28

    zooboy28 Moderator Staff Member

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    Were Nico and Meta the first Sumatran tigers in the region (in addition to being the first breeding pair)?
     
  4. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

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    Essentially yes. Taronga Zoo have said Nico and Meta (arriving in 1979) were the first Sumatran tigers held at the zoo and Melbourne Zoo's pair, Frank and Poetry, were the first Sumatran tigers held at Melbourne Zoo.

    I read an article recently from 1993 which said at the time, Adelaide had two elderly Siberian tigers (one or both were later retired to Mogo) and Perth Zoo had a tiger that was believed to be a hybrid. Both Adelaide and Perth Zoo joined the Sumatran tiger breeding programme in the 1990s, as did the Auckland and Wellington Zoos.

    Post WWII, many tigers were imported into Australia via Singapore based animal dealer Herbet de Souza. These animals were undoubtedly a combination of the now recognised sub species that nobody knew or cared about back in the day. A tiger was simply a tiger. This of course led to the many hybrid tigers in our region, some of which still exist today.

    Of course, it is entirely possible that some of the imported tigers were Sumatrans. After all, if dealers had people out catching orangutans on the island of Sumatra, they may have collected tigers on the same expedition but since they were quickly amalgamated with other sub species once arriving in Australia, this would make such imports irrelevant to the breeding programme today.

    So I suppose it would be accurate to say Nico and Meta were the first Sumatran tigers to be recognised/exhibited as Sumatrans in the region, even if they were not technically the first.
     
    Last edited: 3 Dec 2017
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  5. Zorro

    Zorro Well-Known Member

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    I believe that only one Siberian Tiger held at Adelaide went to Mogo zoo being the only one left alive!
     
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  6. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

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    I can't find much info on this animal I'm afraid, only that he was a male and the last Siberian in the country (as you mention). He was euthanised at Mogo Zoo after being diagnosed with cancer.
     
  7. Zorro

    Zorro Well-Known Member

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    From the top of my head there never was much info regarding these Tigers I was never sure why that was!
     
  8. Chlidonias

    Chlidonias Moderator Staff Member

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    The last Siberian Tiger at Wellington Zoo was sent to Adelaide in 1992. I don't know if it is the one which went to Mogo though (if Adelaide had two animals).
     
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  9. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

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    Do you have anymore info on the Siberian tigers at Wellington Zoo?

    I found this info in your 'Former Mammals in New Zealand Zoos' thread:

    "Formerly breeding at Wellington Zoo. The original pair, Brutus and Baboeska, were imported from Rotterdam Zoo (Netherlands) in exchange for New Zealand birds and produced their first cub in late 1978. The last individual was exported to Adelaide Zoo (Australia) in 1992."

    Through further research I have found out the cub was a female named Tanya and was born 27/11/1978. She was the first Siberian tiger cub born in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Do you know if there were any more births during the time Wellington Zoo held Siberian tigers?

    Tanya would have turned 14 years old the year the last tiger at Wellington Zoo was exported so unless she had died previously/been sent elsewhere, maybe she was the one sent to Adelaide. In 1993, Adelaide Zoo had two elderly tigers and we know the one sent to Mogo was a male so it seems likely the other was a female i.e. Adelaide imported Wellington's elderly female as a companion for their elderly male?
     
  10. Chlidonias

    Chlidonias Moderator Staff Member

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    What I have in my list is all the information I have. Anything else would be guesswork.

    I have a photo of a Siberian Tiger at Wellington in 1988 which (from memory) was the only one left at the time but I could be wrong on that count.
     
  11. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

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    Werribee Open Range Zoo - Lion Cubs Named

    Lion cubs named | Zoos Victoria

    On Wednesday 15 November, Keepers announced the winning names for the four cubs – Asali, Ato, Ilola and Lwazi.

    In a first for Werribee Open Range Zoo, visitors had the opportunity to vote for the names for the 13-week-old lion cubs who were born on 12 August. More than 1500 visitors took part, with the winning names attracting 64% of the vote.

    Until now Keepers have been relying on small differences in size to distinguish the cubs.

    The four names are of African-origin, with the smallest female cub receiving the name Asali (aa-sa-lee) which means ‘Honey’ in Swahili. Her sister has been named Ilola (ee-loh-la), which is a Lesotho word and means ‘to become strong’.

    The two boys have been named Ato (aa-tow), which means 'he who is born on Saturday' and has Swahili origins, and Lwazi (el-wa-zee) which means 'the one with knowledge' in Zulu.

    The four cubs are already proving to be a pawful for second-time mum, Nilo. Sticks, bark and mum’s tail are favourite play items and great for their coordination and agility. As the cubs’ strength and mobility increases, they are spending longer periods of the day out exploring and playing together.

    In the coming weeks, introductions to their 11-month-old half-siblings Zuberi, Ndidi, Aziza and Kibibi will begin.
     
  12. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

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    Taronga Western Plains Zoo - Lion Cub Update

    Lion cubs turn one

    Taronga Western Plains Zoo’s four African Lion cubs have turned one! Born on 19 November last year to mother Maya, the four male cubs weighed less than two kilograms each at birth! Now, at around 70 kilograms each, Bakari, Karoo, Sheru and Virunga are growing up fast.

    They can often be seen romping around together on exhibit and are especially active in the mornings. The cubs routinely play as siblings, stalking and chasing each other (and mother Maya!) through the trees. They are regularly pushing the friendship with Maya, their father Lazarus, and each other - pouncing on tails, hiding, and jumping on one another, paws outstretched!

    They are eating three kilograms of meat every day, with supplements added to ensure they are in tip-top condition and as healthy as they can be. Keepers are very pleased with their progress - there’s no doubt the cubs are growing into impressive young males.

    The cubs will soon be starting a conditioning program, ahead of their move over the much-anticipated African Lion Pride Lands exhibit. As part of this process, Keepers will introduce them to a specially-made transport crate, encouraging them to explore it. That way, they’ll feel comfortable inside the crate when they are moved in early 2018.

    The four cubs are sure to enjoy the vast, open space in the 3.5-hectare enclosure at African Lion Pride Lands. Visitors can see the Lion pride in their new surrounds from March, when the African Lion Pride Lands exhibit will be open to the public!


    Details of the new enclosure (due to open March 2018) can be found here: African Lion Pride Lands set to impress
     
  13. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

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    Taronga Zoo Sumatran Tigers – Media Coverage in the 1990s (Part 1)

    Taronga Zoo’s Sumatran tigers are one of their most popular attractions. Kembali and Kartika, members of the fourth generation of Taronga’s Sumatran tiger family dynasty have featured in the zoo’s social media since their birth in 2011, but their great grandfather Shiva and his mate Selatan were arguably the most famous pair kept at Taronga Zoo. When their male triplets were born in 1995, a notice announcing the birth was posted at Taronga’s gates and public interest in the cubs was described by papers as “bigger than Ben Hur” A holy trinity consisting of Darrill Clements (Media Liaison Officer for Taronga Zoo), Rick Stevens (Wildlife Photographer) and the Sydney Morning Herald ensured extensive newspaper coverage of Shiva and Selatan throughout the 1990s in a time before social media existed. Here are just some of the many articles:



    October 25, 1994
    The Sydney Morning Herald from Sydney, New South Wales Page 3

    Two heartbeats herald survival of the species

    When Dr Larry Vogelnest looked at the ultrasonic scanner and saw a healthy foetal heart beating and then another, he whooped for joy and planted an kiss on the expectant mother. It was the first time Dr Vogelnest had kissed a patient and if she had not been under general anaesthetic, it would have been a foolhardy act to say the least. He is the chief veterinarian at Taronga Zoo and she is Selatan, a four-year-old Sumatran tiger weighing about 130 kilograms. Staff at the zoo are understandably anxious about this pregnancy, which the ultrasound has just confirmed with the help of Dr Karon Hoffmann, a specialist veterinary ultrasonagrapher. So flimsy is the Sumatran tiger's grip on survival that every new cub is an event to celebrate. As few as 400 remain in the wild and another 50 or so in captivity. Vast tracts of their native habitat have been lost through Indonesian resettlement programs involving several million people moving from Java and Madura. The tigers remaining wild are in five disjunct protected areas. Zoos around the world are working to maintain a healthy tiger gene pool and Selatan and her mate, Shiva - a nine-year-old born at Taronga Zoo - are an important pair, highly valued for their different bloodlines. The zoo needed to confirm the pregnancy because Selatan has already had a couple of false pregnancies since she and Shiva were put together about a year ago. She came from Melbourne Zoo. Taronga's director of veterinary services, Dr George Russ, notes that modern medical know-how is proving to be invaluable in . such captive-breeding programs. Shiva had already been investigated to ensure he was fertile and the ultrasound not only confirmed Selatan's pregnancy but enabled the health of the unborn cubs to be monitored. "The significance of this pregnancy can't be overstated for its significance to the species as a whole," Dr Russ said yesterday. The cubs were conceived in the first week of August. Their birthdate is uncertain because the tiger gestation period can vary bv about a week either side of 104 days. If all goes well, in about a month's time the known global population of these magnificent animals will increase by 0.5 per cent. The two new cubs will then have to get through the critical first 10 days of their lives, during which they are very vulnerable and may be rejected by their mother. Selatan's false pregnancies also highlight the subtleties of tiger reproduction and the need for modern technology to unravel it. Female tigers come into season - or oestrus several times a year. They are in oestrus for about a week, during which they may copulate with a male 100 times or more. They will not produce eggs during oestrus, however, unless they mate. If they do not conceive, they will come into season again soon afterwards. Selatan, however, did not follow that pattern at first and left her keepers confused and concerned that either she or Shiva might have been infertile: both are first-time parents. "Take it easy, sweetheart - that's 0.5 per cent of the Sumatran tiger population you're carrying." . . .

    https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/121521478/



    May 15, 1995
    The Sydney Morning Herald from Sydney, New South Wales Page 3

    Shiva's one week of passion

    Normally Taronga Zoo's Sumatran tiger Shiva, whose namesake is the god of destruction, is a total wimp. He is pushed around, snarled at, ignored and forced into the distant corners of his home by his reluctant partner Selatan. What makes it worse is that Selatan, born in 1990, is only half Shiva's age. For all but one week a year the two tigers - only-150 Sumatran tigers are in captivity and less than 400 survive in remnant jungles in Sumatra - are completely incompatible. Right now it's that week of year again, and the tigers are having a wonderful time. She is in her oestrous cycle and the two are having sex at least 20 times a day, 24 hours a day, said Mr Frank McFayden, the supervisor of cats at Taronga Zoo. "They do it quickly and don't linger," said Mr McFayden. "Straight after mating they run out of energy, collapse, have a kip then start again. "This week mating is the only thing they have on their minds and he gets quite aggressive. Normally he is placid and she is aggressive. She is not very loving to him but now she becomes quite romantic and when the week is over she will advise him with a thumping." For zoo staff this week of passion is one of the most important of the year. The world has already lost several sub-species of tigers including the Bali, the Java and the Caspian. Only around 100 Siberian tigers are left and fewer than 20 of the Chinese tigers have survived poaching and loss of habitat. The Bengal. Corbett's and the Sumatran tigers are the only three sub-species with viable populations and the Sumatran is by far the most endangered of these. Shiva and Selatan's genes are invaluable if the survival of the sub-species is to be assured. Because the captive population is so small, inbreeding is a threat, so every match has to be approved by a stud book keeper who keeps a full record of who is related to who. If this week results in another cub - the pair successfully mated last year and gave birth to a female cub called Kemiri they may soon be separated and matched with other partners.

    https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/121050300/



    December 10, 1997
    The Sydney Morning Herald from Sydney, New South Wales Page 10

    Zoo's boom gives tigers room to learn multiplication

    If you visited Taronga Zoo this year, take a bow - your entrance fee will help to fund a new world-class enclosure for the endangered Sumatran tiger. Taronga and the W estern Plains Zoo at Dubbo are delighted to have come up with a $1.59 million operating surplus for the year, coming in 32 per cent over their budget target. The roaring financial success will bring immediate benefits to the Sumatran tigers, with a massive new enclosure under way at Western Plains, where it is hoped the animals will breed. There are fewer than 700 of the tigers left in the world, and 243 of these are in captivity. Taronga has five tigers, two in Sydney and three cubs born in captivity which were moved to Dubbo last year as part of the zoo's breeding program. The new enclosure will cater for 12 of the big cats, and the extra space will boost negotiations with zoos in the United States which are considering sending all their Sumatran tigers to Australia so the animals can be bred in their own region. The director of life sciences at Taronga, Mr William Meikle, said the tigers would get all the creature comforts at their new Dubbo home. "There's massive amounts of space and they will be away from the public area, which improves their chances of breeding successfully," he said. The Minister for the Environment, Ms Allan, said a key reason for the zoo's operating surplus was the jump in visitors, with 1,635,533 people passing through the turnstiles during the year. "The bonus will enable the Zoological Parks Board to finish construction of the Sumatran tiger complex at the Western Plains Zoo," she said. For Sydney fans, Taronga's popular pair of Sumatran tigers, Shiva and Selatan, will remain in their harbour-view home.

    https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/119757208/
     
    Last edited: 7 Dec 2017
  14. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

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    Taronga Zoo Sumatran Tigers – Media Coverage in the 1990s (Part 2)

    Shiva and Selatan’s first litter resulted in twins born 18 November 1994, the male died as a newborn but the female survived. Here is a picture of her:

    http://www.fairfaxsyndication.com/archive/Taronga-s-Sumatran-tigers-and-their-2F3XC5UBPR2W.html

    Caption: Taronga Zoo’s latest arrival, a Sumatran tiger cub, made her debut to the media today. The female cub was born at Taronga Zoo on November 18 1994. The cub will not be on show at the zoo till January.


    The female cub was named Kemiri by Mrs Colleen Fahey in January 1995:

    https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/120358657/

    Article: What was the name given to Taronga Zoo's Sumatran tiger cub yesterday? While Premier Fahey was busy at the ICAC, his wife Colleen christened the cub Kemiri, the name of a national park in Central Sumatra. Mrs Fahey selected the name herself.


    Shiva and Selatan’s second litter resulted in triplets born 26 October 1995, all three were males and survived. Here is a picture of one of them:

    http://www.fairfaxsyndication.com/archive/A-male-Sumatran-Tiger-cub-2F3XC580J1KS.html

    Caption: A male Sumatran Tiger cub aged six weeks old being weighed at Taronga Zoo in Sydney on 11th December 1995.
     
    Last edited: 7 Dec 2017
  15. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

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    Dreamworld Sumatran Tigers - A New Line

    In the 2000s, Raja (2003) and Soraya (2002) became the founders of the third line of Sumatran tigers in our region, following the Nico (1976)/Meta (1975) line which started at Taronga Zoo in the 1980s and the Frank (1980)/Poetry (1978) line which started at Melbourne Zoo in the 1990s and indeed merged with the Nico/Meta line of which it was already linked.

    As illustrated in this family tree, Raja and Soraya are related as they both share several ancestors:

    Soraya (F) Born 2002

    Paternal Line:

    Wild (M) UNK + Wild (F) UNK > Soluk (F) 1978 > Dara (F) 1983 > Morris (M) 1987 > Soraya (F) 2002

    Wild (M) UNK + Wild (F) UNK > Budi (M) 1978 > Dara (F) 1983 > Morris (M) 1987 > Soraya (F) 2002

    Wild (M) UNK + Wild (F) UNK > Soluk (F) 1978 > Joko (M) 1982 > Morris (M) 1987 > Soraya (F) 2002

    Wild (M) UNK + Wild (F) UNK > Budi (M) 1978 > Joko (M) 1982 > Morris (M) 1987 > Soraya (F) 2002

    Maternal Line:

    Borus (M) 1973 + Putsi (F) 1978 > Ullie (F) 1982 > Nena (F) 1993 > Santana (F) 1996 > Soraya (F) 2002

    Raja (M) 1962 + Cora (F) 1970 > Tim (M) 1981 > Nena (F) 1993 > Santana (F) 1996 > Soraya (F) 2002

    Hassan (M) 1956 + Sunda (F) 1967 > Andrea (F) 1971 > Kurt (M) 1981 > Santana (F) 1996 > Soraya (F) 2002

    Hassan (M) 1956 + Sunda (F) 1967 > Gotz (M) 1969 > Kurt (M) 1981 > Santana (F) 1996 > Soraya (F) 2002

    Raja (M) Born 2003


    Paternal Line:

    Sumar (M) 1970 + Djawa (F) 1972 > Suma (F) 1979 > Katanga (F) 1997 > Beludra (M) 2000 > Raja (M) 2003

    Joko (M) 1982 + Dara (F) 1983 > Morris (M) 1987 > Katanga (F) 1997 > Beludra (M) 2000 > Raja (M) 2003

    Matra (M) 1972 + Sumi (F) 1972 > Java (F) 1978 > Kong (M) 1987 > Beludra (M) 2000 > Raja (M) 2003

    Raja (M) 1962 + Cora (F) 1970 > Solo Khan (M) 1980 > Kong (M) 1987 > Beludra (M) 2000 > Raja (M) 2003

    Maternal Line:

    Borus (M) 1973 + Putsi (F) 1978 > Ullie (F) 1982 > Rachka (F) 1992 > Sutera (F) 2000 > Raja (M) 2003

    Raja (M) 1962 + Cora (F) 1970 > Tim (M) 1981 > Rachka (F) 1992 > Sutera (F) 2000 > Raja (M) 2003

    Borus (M) 1973 + Sia (F) 1973 > Shandra (F) 1979 > Ankor (M) 1988 > Sutera (F) 2000 > Raja (M) 2003

    Sumo (M) 1969 + Franci (F) 1971 > Banjak (M) 1977 > Ankor (M) 1988 > Sutera (F) 2000 > Raja (M) 2003

    Raja and Soraya produced two litters at Dreamworld:

    Litter One:

    Indah (F)
    Born 31 March 2007
    Sent to Taronga Western Plains Zoo 2010
    Paired with Satu (born 2006) > No issue

    Rahni (F)
    Born 31 March 2007
    Sent to the National Zoo Canberra 2013
    Paired with Berani (born 2000) > No issue

    Litter Two:

    Jaya (F)

    Born 9 June 2008
    Still at Dreamworld 2017
    Unpaired as of 2017 > No issue

    Shanti (F)
    Born 9 June 2008
    Still at Dreamworld 2017
    Unpaired as of 2017 > No issue

    Ndari (F)
    Born 9 June 2008
    Sent to the National Zoo Canberra 2016
    Paired with Aceh (born 2010) > No issue

    Soraya was then sent to Mogo Zoo in 2009, where she was paired with Lari (born 1995) from
    Taronga Zoo to produce one litter:

    Litter One:

    Senja (F)
    Born 21 August 2010
    Sent to Wellington Zoo
    Paired with Bashii (born 2007) > No issue

    Mati (M)
    Born 21 August 2010
    Still at Mogo Zoo 2017
    Unpaired as of 2017 > No issue

    Indra (M)
    Born 21 August 2010
    Still at Mogo Zoo 2017
    Unpaired as of 2017 > No issue

    All of the five cubs Raja and Soraya produced together were female. A male would no doubt have been desirable as three of the five females were then paired with males of the merged Nico/Meta and Frank/Poetry line. A male cub could easily have been paired with one of the numerous unpaired females of the same line. One of their triplets born in 2008, Jaya, was initially believed to be a male as gender identification in tiger cubs is not reliable until they are several weeks old.

    Raja and Soraya’s five daughters were all peer raised, hand raised by keepers but raised alongside littermates and other tigers.

    Both Raja and Soraya are still alive. Soraya is now post reproductive but Raja has recently fathered two litters of cubs with a hybrid female tiger at Dreamworld. Ironically, the first litter contained a single male.

    Thanks to @Nisha for supplying the genealogical information on Raja and Soraya.
     
  16. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

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    Wellington Zoo Snow Leopards 1980s-1990s

    Wellington Zoo’s first snow leopards were a mature pair named Hima and Darth:

    Hima (M)
    Born at Cincinnati Zoo 29/08/1978
    Sent to San Diego Zoo 06/12/1978
    Arrived at Wellington Zoo 15/07/1986
    Died at Wellington Zoo 05/08/1994

    Darth (F)
    Born at Rochester Zoo 25/05/1980
    Sent to San Antonio Zoo 20/10/1980
    Sent to Columbus Zoo 17/06/1982
    Arrived at Wellington Zoo 08/07/1986
    Died at Wellington Zoo 12/11/1995

    Hima and Darth produced one litter at Wellington Zoo:

    Litter One:

    Lani (F)
    Born at Wellington Zoo 04/11/1988
    Died at Wellington Zoo 16/08/1989

    Sima (F)
    Born at Wellington Zoo 04/11/1988
    Sent to Yarmouth Zoo 14/07/1990 (Died 2006)

    Additional notes/info:

    Hima and Darth had both bred prior to arriving at Wellington Zoo: Darth gave birth to triplets at the Columbus Zoo in 1984 called Vader (M), Violet (F) and Leah (F); Hima sired triplets at the San Diego Zoo in 1983 called Simra (M), Chumar (M) and Makulu (F) and twins in 1985 called Altay (M) and Aksu (M).

    Darth was part of a litter of four cubs (all female). Her littermates all had Star Wars names too.

    Wellington Zoo has not held snow leopards since 1995. They intend to acquire them in the future and renovate the old sun bear enclosure to exhibit them: http://www.stuff.co.nz/dominion-post/news/69313873/snow-leopards-could-be-in-wellington-by-end-of-2016
     
  17. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    7 Mar 2015
    Posts:
    2,298
    Location:
    New Zealand
    Melbourne Zoo Snow Leopards - 1980s-Now

    Melbourne Zoo’s first snow leopards were a young pair named Lakh and Kashi:

    Lakh (M)
    Born at New York Bronx Zoo 26/05/1982
    Arrived at Melbourne Zoo 13/10/1983
    Died at Melbourne Zoo 28/05/1990

    Kashi (F)

    Born at San Antonio Zoo 26/04/1982
    Arrived at Melbourne Zoo 13/10/1983
    Died at Melbourne Zoo 01/12/1996

    Lakh and Kashi had three litters at Melbourne Zoo:

    Litter One:

    Unnamed (F)
    Born at Melbourne Zoo 22/11/1985
    Died at Melbourne Zoo 28/11/1985

    Kalmia (F)
    Born at Melbourne Zoo 22/11/1985
    Sent to Sapporo Zoo 07/06/1990 (Died 2004)

    Litter Two:

    Tayma (M)
    Born at Melbourne Zoo 02/11/1987
    Died at Melbourne Zoo 18/02/1988

    Amyat (F)
    Born at Melbourne Zoo 02/11/1987
    Died at Melbourne Zoo 05/01/1988

    Litter Three:

    Mangar (M)
    Born at Melbourne Zoo 20/03/1989
    Sent to Taronga Zoo 28/02/1990
    Returned to Melbourne Zoo 18/04/1991
    Sent to Mogo Zoo 10/10/1995 (Died UNK)

    Shimbu (F)
    Born 20/03/1989 at Melbourne Zoo
    Sent to Taronga Zoo 28/02/1990
    Returned to Melbourne Zoo 18/04/1991
    Died at Melbourne Zoo ??/10/2010

    Melbourne Zoo imported a male named Gregor to be paired with Shimbu:

    Gregor (M)
    Born at Seattle Zoo 28/04/1991
    Arrived at Melbourne Zoo 21/06/1996
    Died at Melbourne Zoo ??/12/2008

    Gregor and Shimbu never produced any cubs and a new pair was imported named Leon and Meo:

    Leon (M)
    Born at Nindorf Zoo 30/04/2001
    Arrived at Melbourne Zoo 24/10/2007
    Still at Melbourne Zoo

    Meo (F)
    Born at Stuggart Zoo 12/07/2002
    Arrived at Melbourne Zoo 26/06/2003
    Still at Melbourne Zoo

    Leon and Meo produced one litter at Melbourne Zoo:

    Litter One:

    Tashi (F)
    Born at Melbourne Zoo 07/12/2008
    Still at Melbourne Zoo

    Gobi (M)

    Born at Melbourne Zoo 07/12/2008
    Died at Melbourne Zoo ??/??/2011

    Melbourne Zoo have recently imported a young pair named Kang Ju and Miska:

    Kang-Ju (M)
    Born at Nürnberg Zoo 11/08/2015
    Arrived at Melbourne Zoo ??/10/2017

    Miska (F)
    Born at South Lakes Safari Zoo 11/06/2016
    Arrived at Melbourne Zoo 17/10/2017

    Additional notes/info:

    Melbourne Zoo was the first zoo in Australia to hold and breed snow leopards. They feature in the Carnivores Trail, which opened this month.

    Gregor and Shimbu were exceptionally close and after Gregor’s death, Shimbu called for him each morning for several months. They never produced any cubs, which was attributed to Gregor having low sperm motility.

    Shimbu died in 2010, aged 21 years, this is currently the record for longevity in the Australasian region for this species.

    There’s more information on Gregor and Shimbu in this blog: http://snowleopardblog.com/interview-at-melbourne-zoo-on-the-older-snow-leopards/

    Meo was orphaned at the age of 8 weeks and was hand raised by staff. Despite a difficult start to life, Meo was introduced successfully to her mate, Leon, and produced twins in 2008. Meo proved an excellent mother and the female cub (renamed Sundar) remains at Melbourne Zoo. There is a video here from one of Meo’s keepers, talking about Meo as a new mother: https://snowleopards.wordpress.com/2009/04/22/keeper-howie-talking-about-cub-births/

    Leon’s first offspring, Sabu and Kamala (born 2005 at Taronga Zoo), have been removed from the breeding programme (Sabu is castrated) after the genetic conditions Multiple Ocular Coloboma (MOC) and Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD) were identified in the litter. This is possibly also the reason Melbourne Zoo have imported a new female to form a breeding pair, rather than breeding from Leon and Meo’s daughter, Sundar.
     
    Last edited: 22 Dec 2017
  18. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    7 Mar 2015
    Posts:
    2,298
    Location:
    New Zealand
    Melbourne Zoo Snow Leopards – Zoo News/Articles

    This article was published in Melbourne Zoo’s Zoo News Member Magazine Volume 38 (December 2017) prior to the opening of the Carnivores’ Trail:

    https://www.zoo.org.au/sites/default/files/000082_ZV_ZooNewsQ4-2017_A4_LR_0.pdf

    Spot the Snow Leopards of Melbourne Zoo

    This summer, Snow Leopards will be starring in the brand new Carnivores' Trail experience set to open in time for the school holidays in December. Melbourne Zoo is currently home to five Snow Leopards; Leon, Meo, Sundah, Kang-Ju and Miska. Zoo Keepers are busily preparing three of the cats for the big move, with the Snow Leopards expected to have time to settle into the new development before it opens to zoo visitors.

    Caring for charismatic cats like the Snow Leopards is an interesting role for carnivore keepers Monique and Meryl. Both Keepers are working with Sundah the Snow
    Leopard in the new off limits area where the young female lives while awaiting the move to the new Carnivores' Trail.


    Monique is a complete fan: ‘She is a lovely Snow Leopard, and I really enjoy working with her. She’s cautious, she won’t just rush out of her den, she’ll have a good scope around first, and she’s wary of any new items we might put in her den or night yard. Sundah isn’t very food motivated, so that’s making it a fairly slow process training her to go into the travel box we plan to use for the move to the new exhibit. She really likes to lie around sunbaking, but she is curious, so that helps get her interested in what we’re doing. Her favourite treat is the lactose free milk we give her during training sessions. She’s a bit of a sticky beak – she likes to keep an eye on her mother Meo, right next door.’

    Monique explains that Sundah’s temperament is distinctly different from Meo’s and Leon’s. She says that Sundah’s father Leon is: ‘the most chilled Snow Leopard you could ever meet! He’s relaxed, responsive, and will be called into his night den at the drop of a hat! Meo is confident and really comfortable around people more or less straightaway, while Sundah will sit back and size you up first before she makes up her mind about you. She’s definitely a challenge! When she eventually responded to me by making a chuffing sound, I nearly shed a tear!’

    Monique says that Sundah does well with consistent faces and routines, so she and Meryl will be moving down to Carnivores' Trail with her: ‘I really want her to be the star of the show down there!’

    Meo and Leon will remain in their spacious new surroundings, and Monique says they are already thoroughly enjoying their retirement.

    Meet the Snow Leopards of Melbourne Zoo

    Since the arrival of two Snow Leopards from Europe in October, there have been five of this endangered species living at the Zoo. Three Snow Leopards were relocated during construction to a behind the scenes facility purpose-built for quarantined or retired animals. The elderly breeding pair, Leon and Meo, will stay on in this facility to enjoy their retirement. While their offspring Sundah will move into the new exhibit along with the new arrivals, Miska and Kang-Ju.


    Leon: Leon is 16 years old and is a watchful cat that likes to keep an eye on his neighbours. Leon keeps his cool in front of his keepers, only playing when no one is watching!

    Meo: Meo is 15 years old and likes to interact with keepers, playing games of chasey and showing off her hunting skills.

    Sundah: Sundah is the offspring of Meo and Leon, she is nine years old. She is shy at times but always loves a milk feed from her Keepers.

    Kang-Ju: Kang-Ju is a two year old Snow Leopard. He recently arrived from Germany and was born at Nürnberg Zoo.

    Miska: Miska is an 18 month old female Snow Leopard born at South Lakes Safari Zoo in the UK. She is quite a calm cat, but can be a little bit mischievous too.


    The Carnivores’ Trail is now open:

    https://www.zoo.org.au/melbourne/news/wide-world-of-carnivores

    Wide World of Carnivores

    The new Carnivores' Trail is now open, after an official launch on Monday morning by Premier Daniel Andrews and the Minister for Energy, Environment and Climate Change, Lily D’Ambrosio.

    The $9m development was fully funded by the State Government and is now home to four species: Snow Leopards, Sumatran Tiger, Coatis, and Tasmanian Devils.

    There are face-to-face encounters through one-way glass viewing panels, or across a moat at the Sumatran Tiger exhibit.

    The new development forms the central section of the pathway leading visitors along a loop which begins with the African Wild Dogs and Lions and ends with a different view into the Wild Dogs exhibit.

    After those two African species, the next animal along the Carnivores Trail is Isabella, the Philippines Crocodile, which is the world’s most endangered crocodilian species.

    Moving on into the new section of the trail, visitors will first encounter three South American Coatis, agile and acrobatic climbers. A special play area adjacent to their exhibit will encourage visiting children to climb like Coatis.

    Two female Snow Leopards Miska and Sundah will be living in the next two new exhibits. The recently-arrived male Kang-Ju housed nearby to play a future role in the breeding program, which is linked to the European zoos’ species management program for this species, classified as Vulnerable in the wild.

    A one-way glass panel provides the first view into the first of two Snow Leopard exhibits, and one-way glass is also used in a large viewing area overlooking the exhibit from an elevated position.

    Both Snow Leopard exhibits have chilled rocks as options the animals may choose as resting places on hot days.

    The Sumatran Tiger exhibit has a large deck for visitors viewing the female Indrah across the broad moat. This is a Critically Endangered species, and the Zoos Victoria Don’t Palm us Off campaign aims to assist Indrah's wild cousins in Sumatra.

    Tasmanian Devils are the next stop along the Carnivores Trail, highlighting a species suffering from a contagious cancer in the wild. Zoos Victoria is a major supporter of the insurance breeding program for the species and their reintroduction into the wild.

    Another view into the African Wild Dog exhibit is the finale of the Carnivores Trail.


    Note: the article about the opening of the Carnivores Trail has also been posted in the Melbourne Zoo News 2017 thread but I have posted it here as the other thread will fade into obscurity in just over a week and it'd be nice to have a record of it in this Big/Small Cats thread. I will post more of my research in 2018 as with extended family staying, I'll be too busy over Christmas to post next Friday. Merry Christmas 2017 and Happy New Year 2018 to everyone.
     
    Last edited: 22 Dec 2017
  19. Chlidonias

    Chlidonias Moderator Staff Member

    Joined:
    13 Jun 2007
    Posts:
    19,132
    Location:
    everywhere
    The zoo is Thrigby Hall Wildlife Gardens.
     
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  20. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    7 Mar 2015
    Posts:
    2,298
    Location:
    New Zealand
    Auckland Zoo African Lions - Kura

    Auckland Zoo’s oldest Lioness Kura was born at the Cleveland Zoo in September 1998. She arrived at Auckland Zoo in 1999 and this year will turn 20 years of age. She produced 8 cubs during the 2000s and today has over 30 living descendants in the Australasian region.

    Kura’s first litter was born May 2001 and was sired by Tonyi (captive born 1996 at the Philadelphia Zoo):

    Litter One:

    Amali (F)
    Born at Auckland Zoo May 2001
    Sent to Adelaide Zoo 2002 (Died 2017)
    Issue: 2.1 cubs 2004

    Amira (F)
    Born at Auckland Zoo May 2001
    Still at Auckland Zoo 2017
    Issue: 1.1 cubs 2004

    Kuchami (F)
    Born at Auckland Zoo May 2001
    Sent to Taronga Zoo 2002
    Issue: 1.1 cubs 2003

    Kutaza (F)
    Born at Auckland Zoo May 2001
    Sent to Adelaide Zoo 2002
    Issue: None

    Kura’s second litter was born April 2004 and was sired by Lazerus (wild born 2002 in South Africa):

    Litter Two:

    Malik (M)
    Born at Auckland Zoo April 2004
    Sent to Wellington Zoo 2005
    Issue: 3.0 cubs 2009, 0.2 cubs 2009, 2.0 cubs 2011

    Amari (M)
    Born at Auckland Zoo April 2004
    Sent to Mogo Zoo 2005 (Fate Unknown)
    Issue: Unknown

    Tiombe (F)
    Born at Auckland Zoo April 2004
    Sent to Monarto Zoo 2005
    Issue: 2.0 cubs 2007, 1.2 cubs 2013

    Kibira (F)
    Born at Auckland Zoo April 2004
    Sent to Monarto Zoo 2005
    Issue: None


    Living Descendants in the region through her offspring:


    Amali (F01):

    Kiamba (F04) currently at Monarto Zoo (Kura>Amali>Kiamba)
    Jahzara (F11) currently at Monarto Zoo (Kura>Amali>Kiamba>Jahzara)
    Mlinzi (F13) currently at Monarto Zoo (Kura>Amali>Kiamba>Mlinzi)
    Makena (F13) currently at Monarto Zoo (Kura>Amali>Kiamba>Makena)

    Amira (F01):


    Zulu (M04) currently at Wellington Zoo (Kura>Amira>Zulu)
    Zalika (F04) currently at Monarto Zoo (Kura>Amira>Zalika)

    Kuchami (F01):

    Asali (F03) currently at Hunter Valley Zoo (Kura>Kuchami>Asali)
    Johari (M03) currently at Werribee Open Range Zoo (Kura>Kuchami>Johari)
    Kito (M15) currently at Melbourne Zoo (Kura>Kuchami>Johari>Kito)
    Kubwa (M15) currently at Melbourne Zoo (Kura>Kuchami>Johari>Kubwa)
    Kashka (M15) currently at Melbourne Zoo (Kura>Kuchami>Johari>Kashka)
    Kibibi (F16) currently at Werribee Open Range Zoo (Kura>Kuchami>Johari>Kibibi)
    Aziza (F16) currently at Werribee Open Range Zoo (Kura>Kuchami>Johari>Aziza)
    Zuberi (M16) currently at Werribee Open Range Zoo (Kura>Kuchami>Johari>Zuberi)
    Ndidi (M16) currently at Werribee Open Range Zoo (Kura>Kuchami>Johari>Ndidi)
    Asali (F17) currently at Werribee Open Range Zoo (Kura>Kuchami>Johari>Asali)
    Ilola (F17) currently at Werribee Open Range Zoo (Kura>Kuchami>Johari>Ilola)
    Ato (M17) currently at Werribee Open Range Zoo (Kura>Kuchami>Johari>Ato)
    Lwazi (M17) currently at Werribee Open Range Zoo (Kura>Kuchami>Johari>Lwazi)

    Malik (M04):


    Tua (F09) currently at Orana Wildlife Park (Kura>Malik>Tua)
    Tama (F09) currently at Orana Widllife Park (Kura>Malik>Tama)
    Kairangi (M09) currently at Orana Widllife Park (Kura>Malik>Kairangi)
    Tawhiri (M09) currently at Orana Widllife Park (Kura>Malik>Tawhiri)
    Mambila (M11) currently at Orana Widllife Park (Kura>Malik>Mambila)
    Masai (M11) currently at Orana Widllife Park (Kura>Malik>Masai)

    Tiombe (F04):

    Inkosi (M07) currently at Monarto Zoo (Kura>Tiombe>Inkosi)
    Jelani (M13) currently at Monarto Zoo (Kura>Tiombe>Jelani)
    Husani (F13) currently at Monarto Zoo (Kura>Tiombe>Husani)
    Nia (F13) currently at Monarto Zoo (Kura>Tiombe>Nia)


    Additional Notes/Info:


    Kura is known for her ferocious personality and dominant nature. She has maintained the position of dominant female since her arrival, despite being smaller than her daughter Amira, and pride mate, Sheeka (who passed away in 2017). Kura’s fiery personality can be seen in many of her cubs, in particular her daughters Amali and Tiombe, who both became the dominant females of their own prides at the Adelaide and Monarto Zoos respectively, and her son, Malik, who is the dominant male at the Wellington Zoo.

    Auckland Zoo often waited to see the personality of the cubs in Kura’s litters before naming them. While the studbook coordinator makes recommendations on where the litter should be placed, advice is taken from the origin zoo on which animal is most suitable for transfer, especially if they are of equal gender, age and genetics (i.e. full siblings from the same litter). The Swahili names Auckland Zoo staff gave to Kura’s first litter were likely future clues as to their destination. Amira (princess) is indeed gentle natured and easy going and the cub Auckland Zoo wanted to retain; Kuchami (go far) was the most adventurous and independent. She made the biggest move out of the four as she was relocated alone to another zoo; Kutaza (cross one) displayed a feisty nature from infancy and could have clashed with Kura had she remained at Auckland Zoo. She was located with Amali to Adelaide Zoo and indeed both lionesses proved difficult to integrate with the current male.

    Amali and Kutaza were renamed by the Adelaide Zoo to Yizi (Amali) and Amani (Kutaza).

    Amira was Kura’s only offspring to remain at Auckland Zoo as all of her second litter (born 2004) were relocated in 2005 to other zoos. Amira’s also gave birth in 2004, following the export of her father and uncle to Melbourne Zoo in 2003, and the import of South African males, Lazerus and Ngala that same year. Keeper’s noted that Kura and Amira’s personalities seemed to have rubbed off on their cubs, with Amira’s two offspring having placid, easy going personalities and Kura’s four offspring displaying fiery personalities.

    Kura featured in the documentary The Zoo: This Is Your Life (2009). It followed her journey from cub to adulthood and include footage from The Zoo TV series and interviews with her keepers. There was discussion on whether Kura (then 11 years old) would breed again, especially since Ngala had not fathered offspring in Kura and Amira’s 2004 litters. This never materialised, likely due to Kura’s line being so well represented by this time.