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Black, white or Indian rhino? Wich breeds best in captivity?

Discussion in 'General Zoo Discussion' started by Nikola Chavkosk, 22 Feb 2016.

  1. Nikola Chavkosk

    Nikola Chavkosk Well-Known Member

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    I know that first captive born generation of southern white rhinoceros breeds with difficulties in zoos, and that their offspring, breeds even more difficult in captivity, is this true? Is captive population of whites self-sustainable?

    On other hand, it seems that Indian rhinos shows most successfull breeding rate in captivity of the 3 rhino species held in captivity (excl. Sumatran on Sumatra), followed by black rhinos, and then the Southern white rhinos.

    Is the breeding success of Black rhinos in captivity, better than that of the Southern white rhinos?

    Are those differences linked with efforts of management of breeding, made by zoos, because the Indian and Black rhinos are threatened?

    Are the first captive born generation of Black rhinos breed with greater success than first captive born generation of Southern white rhinos?
     
    Last edited: 23 Feb 2016
  2. marshwiggle

    marshwiggle Member

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    The reason that captive born southern white rhinos do not breed well in captivity seems to have to do with their diets. Apparently, exposure to phytoestrogens in utero can make female white rhinos infertile as adults (though their reproductive behavior is apparently unchanged). Changing their diets may result in a self-sustaining population. Very interesting paper on it if you don't mind reading a technical publication: Activation of Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) Estrogen Receptors by Phytoestrogens: Potential Role in the Reproductive Failure of Captive-Born Females?

    I believe that the reduced fertility of captive bred females is the main reason that the San Diego animal park imported six animals for its northern white rhino de-extinction efforts.

    I think fewer zoos keep the Indian and black rhinos, which results in space and demographics issues. Those species also seem to be harder to mix with others than the white rhino, which may make the whites more attractive zoo candidates. I couldn't find the studbooks online but it would be fascinating to see how the species compare to the white rhino in terms of reproduction!
     
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  3. Nikola Chavkosk

    Nikola Chavkosk Well-Known Member

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    Thank you I certantly will read about proposed publication. Yes phytoestrogenes like in alfalfa or soybean. So San Diego imported new northern white rhinos?
     
  4. kiang

    kiang Well-Known Member Premium Member

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    No, new Southern white rhino
     
  5. lintworm

    lintworm Moderator Staff Member

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    For Europe this website is amazing when it comes to rhinos (though it is in German which could make it a bit more complicated for some):

    Rhinos in Europe

    You can see that most black and greater-one-horned rhinos in Europe are captive-born and that they almost breed like rabbits :p Southern white rhinos do less well, but seem to be catching up lately....
     
  6. Nikola Chavkosk

    Nikola Chavkosk Well-Known Member

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    Yes that makes sense. Southerns are constantly beeing imported in various countries because of their big numbers in South Africa. I think there were about 10 new imports in Europe in the last 2 years.
     
  7. ThylacineAlive

    ThylacineAlive Well-Known Member

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    San Diego imported these new Southern White Rhinoceros in order to someday attempt cloning back the Northern White Rhinoceros.

    ~Thylo:cool:
     
  8. Nikola Chavkosk

    Nikola Chavkosk Well-Known Member

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    :p :p Like rabbits. Thank you I will try with Deutch
     
  9. Nikola Chavkosk

    Nikola Chavkosk Well-Known Member

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    Number in Europe, of:
    -Indian rhinoceros: 74 (38.36) (10.04.2017)
    -Black rhinoceros: 87 (35.52) (13.02.2017) (low as for Europe and compared to 300 white rhinoceros in Europe, approximately).

    :)
    After: Rhinos in Europe
     
    Last edited: 18 Apr 2017
  10. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

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    Have just dug up some info on six female first generation Southern White Rhinoceros in New Zealand Zoos:

    Utani was born in 1984 at San Diego Wild Animal Park and is currently at Orana Wildlife Park. She is a first generation Southern White Rhino. She has only produced one calf, a male Ibutho born in 1999. Utani’s wildborn mother, Mfolozi, produced 15 offspring in captivity.

    Mapenzi was born in 1984 at San Diego Wild Animal Park is currently at Orana Wildlife Park. She is a first generation Southern White Rhino. She never produced a calf. Mapenzi’s wildborn mother, Macite, produced 10 offspring in captivity.

    Sesheka was born in 1979 at San Diego Wild Animal Park and died in 1993 at Orana Wildlife Park, a month after being transferred from Auckland Zoo. She was a first generation Southern White Rhino. She never produced a calf during her 13 year stay at Auckland Zoo. Sesheka’s wildborn mother, Sinarma, produced 10 offspring in captivity.

    Kito was born at Auckland Zoo in 2000 and is currently at Hamilton Zoo. She is a first generation Southern White Rhino (but wild conceived). Kito has produced three calves in captivity to date, Ubuntu born in 2010, a stillborn calf in 2013 and Samburu born in 2016. Kito’s wildborn mother, Mazithi, died prematurely in 2003 so cannot contribute to data of captive offspring produced.

    Tamu was born at Perth Zoo in 2002 and is currently at Orana Wildlife Park. She is a first generation Southern White Rhino. She has produced two calves, Eco born in 2010 and Valentino born in 2015. Tamu’s wildborn mother, Sabie, has produced two offspring in captivity to date but has not bred since 2005.

    Imani was born at Hamilton Zoo in 2007 and is still at Hamilton Zoo. She is a first generation Southern White Rhino. Imani has yet to produce a calf. Imani’s wildborn mother, Caballe, has produced 6 offspring in captivity to date.

    Three support your theory of first generation females being poor reproducers compared to their founder dams, while one has matched her wildborn mother’s reproductive records, one is too young to be proven either way (aged 10 years) and one cannot be included in comparisons due to her dam’s premature death four years after capture. It’s interesting to note that the most successful first generation female listed below (Kito), was actually conceived in the wild (her mother was six months pregnant at transfer) so she did not fully gestate in captivity like the other females listed.
     
  11. Nikola Chavkosk

    Nikola Chavkosk Well-Known Member

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    Thank you for this very informative research Zoofan15!
    In the breeding successes, however, even the males can play a role (e.g., whether the father bull who sired a first-generation captive born female, was born to wild-caught mother, or was wild-caught itself?)

    Do you know about any breeding of second-generation captive born white rhinoceros (e.g. of the calf of the aforementioned first-generation Utani (the calf born in 1999?))
     
  12. Nikola Chavkosk

    Nikola Chavkosk Well-Known Member

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    I found one evidence of third-generation captive born male (ID in the studbook: 1233, born on 8th of February 1999, from the captive-born mother 856 (parents: 139 (sir) and 97 (dam)), and father 828 (parents: 355 (sir) and 352 (dam)), white rhino, sired a calves(1658 (male) in 2009, and, 2067 (female) in 2011) in the studbook, but the searching is demanding. I want to find at least one evidence of second-generation and third-generation captive-born female, producing a calf in captivity. Seems that zoos will need to import more wild-caught females to breed with captive born males, who are more successful breeders than the captive-born females. The studbook: http://www.rhinoresourcecenter.com/pdf_files/140/1409008711.pdf
     
    Last edited: 19 Apr 2017
  13. jibster

    jibster Well-Known Member

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    The Wilds has had at least one fifth-generation captive birth, as well as numerous fourth-generation captive births (as of late 2014, seven fourth-generation births as well as the first fifth-generation) Although San Diego Safari Park did import new females for its northern white rhino project, I'm not sure that the North American population is desperately in need of wild-caught females.

    Rhino Born at the Wilds is the First Fifth Generation White Rhino Born Outside of Africa
     
  14. Zoofan15

    Zoofan15 Well-Known Member

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    Happy to help.

    Utani's calf born in 1999 was a male named Ibutho. He was transferred to Monarto Zoo in 2004 and kept alone but within sight and sound of a breeding herd for almost 10 years. In late 2016, he was introduced to a herd of four females so in the next year or so, we should know whether or not he is successful as a sire. I believe at least two of the females bred with the previous male so any lack of breeding can be attributed to the new male.

    Orana Wildlife Park have held two mature bulls. One was Cyrano, he was a first generation male Southern White Rhino born to wild born parents. He bred with Utani and Sabie (both first generation Southern White Rhino females) to produce calves in 1999, 2010 and 2015. He has since passed away.

    Their other bull was a second generation Southern White Rhino called Stumpy. His grandparents were wild born and imported by Whipsnade as part of a large export, where they produced Stumpy's mother (first generation), who was sent to Australia where she produced Stumpy. Stumpy will not breed for love nor money.
     
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