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Catalogue of Penguins in Captivity Worldwide

Discussion in 'General Zoo Discussion' started by Chlidonias, 4 Feb 2018.

  1. Chlidonias

    Chlidonias Moderator Staff Member

    Joined:
    13 Jun 2007
    Posts:
    19,241
    Location:
    everywhere
    First post: list of living penguin species with photos from the Zoochat galleries as illustration, plus brief notes on distribution, subspecies, and general captive status.

    Second post: break-down of total numbers of penguin species in captivity for each region.

    Third post: current captive holdings arranged by species.


    ..........................................................................................................

    Firstly, this is the list of living species of penguin. I've noted the subspecies (with respective distributions) for those species which have them, and where there are differences of opinion between species versus subspecies. Distributions are the breeding ranges.


    *Emperor Penguin Aptenodytes forsteri
    Range: Antarctica.
    No subspecies.
    Captive status: rare in captivity, currently found in several zoos in China and Japan, and one in the USA. Has been kept more widely in the distant past (late 1800s, early 1900s) in Europe, New Zealand, etc, but birds rarely survived long in those early days.

    Photo by @Ituri at SeaWorld San Diego, USA, in 2011.

    [​IMG]
    Penguin Encounter | ZooChat


    *King Penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus
    Range: subantarctic islands.
    Two subspecies:
    **A. p. patagonicus - South Georgia, the Falkland Islands, and southern Chile.
    **A. p. halli - Kerguelen Islands, Crozet Island, Prince Edward Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, and Macquarie Island.
    Captive status: common in captivity, found in all the regions as presented here (Australia, New Zealand, Asia, Middle East, Africa, Europe, South America, North America). Both subspecies are in captivity, with A. p. patagonicus probably the most common, but captive populations are usually mixed regardless of origin.

    Photo by @lintworm in the wild, Falkland Islands, in 2017.

    [​IMG]
    King penguin colony | ZooChat


    *Adelie Penguin Pygoscelis adeliae
    Range: Antarctica.
    No subspecies.
    Captive status: not common, found in Asia, Europe and North America, but in relatively few collections due to its environmental requirements. Most holders are in China and Japan.

    Photo by @Tomek at Faunia Madrid, Spain, in 2016.

    [​IMG]
    Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), August 2016 | ZooChat


    *Chinstrap Penguin Pygoscelis antarctica
    Range: mostly the Antarctic Peninsula and subantarctic islands of the South Atlantic.
    No subspecies.
    Captive status: not common, found in Asia, Europe and North America, but in relatively few collections.

    Photo by @Maguari at Faunia Madrid, Spain, in 2011.

    [​IMG]
    Chinstrap Penguin at Faunia, 27/05/11 | ZooChat


    *Gentoo Penguin Pygoscelis papua
    Range: Antarctica and subantarctic islands.
    Two subspecies:
    **P. p. papua - Falkland Islands, South Georgia, Kerguelen, Heard, Macquarie, and Staten Islands.
    **P. p. ellsworthi - Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Island, South Orkney, and South Sandwich Island.
    Captive status: common, found in most of the regions as presented here (only excepting Africa and South America) and in numerous collections. The nominate subspecies P. p. papua is most common in captivity overall, although interestingly in North America P. p. ellsworthi is the most commonly-held subspecies.

    Photo by @geomorph at SeaWorld San Diego, USA, in 2014.

    [​IMG]
    Penguin Encounter - Antarctic Penguin Exhibit - Gentoo Penguin | ZooChat


    *Australian Little Blue Penguin Eudyptula novaehollandiae
    Alternative names: Little Penguin; Blue Penguin; Fairy Penguin
    Genetics strongly suggest that there are two species of Eudyptula as presented here. Visually they are probably inseparable.
    Range: southwest and southeast Australia, and Otago (New Zealand). The New Zealand population is believed to have colonised from Australia between 1500 and 1900AD.
    No subspecies.
    Captive status: common in Australia, and probably kept in New Zealand also (amongst New Zealand Little Blues). Rare outside Australia, currently only in Japan, UK, and USA. Possibly still in Singapore also.

    Photo by @m30t at Cincinnati Zoo, USA, in 2017.

    [​IMG]
    Blue Penguin | ZooChat


    *New Zealand Little Blue Penguin Eudyptula minor
    Alternative names: Little Penguin; Blue Penguin
    Genetics strongly suggest that there are two species of Eudyptula as presented here. Visually they are probably inseparable.
    Range: New Zealand and the Chatham Islands.
    No subspecies. (Various subspecies have been used in the past based on broad distributions within New Zealand, but none can be distinguished genetically or visually).
    Captive status: kept in several collections in New Zealand, via rescue birds. Not found in captivity elsewhere.

    Photo by @Kokakola11 at Auckland Zoo, New Zealand, in 2011.

    [​IMG]
    Little Blue Penguin at Auckland Zoo | ZooChat


    *White-flippered Penguin Eudyptula "albosignata"
    A regional form of Eudyptula which visually is easily-separable from other Little Blue Penguins (being larger, with distinctive colouration). The taxonomic status has swung back and forth between species/subspecies/morph. Genetically it is identical with New Zealand Little Blue Penguins.
    Range: Canterbury (New Zealand).
    Captive status: only a few birds in New Zealand, via rescue birds.

    Photo by @Chlidonias at the International Antarctic Centre, New Zealand, in 2011.
    The White-flippered Penguins are the larger pale birds in the middle, flanked by New Zealand Little Blue Penguins.

    [​IMG]
    penguins at the International Antarctic Centre | ZooChat


    *Yellow-eyed Penguin Megadyptes antipodes
    Range: Auckland and Campbell Islands, and southern New Zealand. The New Zealand population is thought to be of recent origin, with colonisation from the subantarctic islands following the post-Maori extinction of the related Waitaha Penguin Megadyptes waitaha in c.1500AD.
    No subspecies.
    Captive status: none currently in captivity except as rescue birds in New Zealand. Has formerly been kept at London Zoo (UK) in the late-1800s/early 1900s, and Napier Marineland (NZ) in the 1980s.

    Photo by @Chlidonias in the wild, New Zealand, in 2007.

    [​IMG]
    Yellow-eyed Penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) | ZooChat


    *Fiordland Crested Penguin Eudyptes pachyrhynchus
    Range: southern New Zealand.
    No subspecies. Sometimes the Snares Crested Penguin is treated as a subspecies.
    Captive status: very rare in captivity, currently only at Taronga Zoo (Australia), and as rescue birds in New Zealand. Has formerly been kept at Amsterdam (Netherlands) in the early-1900s.

    Photo by @Chlidonias at Wellington Zoo, New Zealand, in 2017.

    [​IMG]
    Fiordland Crested Penguin (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus) | ZooChat


    *Snares Crested Penguin Eudyptes robustus
    Range: Snares Islands.
    No subspecies. Sometimes this is treated as a subspecies of Fiordland Crested Penguin.
    Captive status: none currently in captivity except one rescue bird in New Zealand. Has also been kept in the distant past, e.g. fifteen short-lived birds brought to Wellington Zoo (NZ) in 1909 were probably this species.

    No photos in the Zoochat galleries.


    *Erect-crested Penguin Eudyptes sclateri
    Alternative name: Sclater's Penguin
    Range: Antipodes and Bounty Islands.
    No subspecies.
    Captive status: none currently in captivity except one rescue bird in New Zealand. Has been kept in the distant past, e.g. London Zoo (UK) in the late 1800s, and Wellington Zoo (NZ) in the early 1900s.

    No photos in the Zoochat galleries.


    *Macaroni Penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus
    Range: the Atlantic and Indian Ocean sectors of the Southern Ocean (South Georgia, South Sandwich and South Orkney Islands, Falkland Islands and southern Chile, and Crozet, Kerguelen, Marion, Prince Edward, Heard and McDonald Islands)
    No subspecies. Royal Penguin was formerly treated as a subspecies.
    Captive status: rare in comparison to the similar Rockhopper Penguins; found in Asia, Europe and North America, but in only a few collections. The USA has more holders than elsewhere.

    Photo by @Bwassa at Living Coasts, UK, in 2016.

    [​IMG]
    Macaroni Penguin @ Living Coasts 22.09.2016 | ZooChat


    *Royal Penguin Eudyptes schlegeli
    Range: Macquarie Island.
    No subspecies. Formerly treated as a subspecies of the Macaroni Penguin.
    Captive status: none currently in captivity. I haven't seen any records for birds kept in zoos previously, apart for several birds at Wellington Zoo (NZ) in 1921 which was actually a misidentification for Erect-crested Penguins.

    No photos in the Zoochat galleries.


    *Southern Rockhopper Penguin Eudyptes chrysocome
    The Eastern Rockhopper Penguin is sometimes split as a full species, but more usually retained as a subspecies.
    Range: subantarctic islands.
    Two subspecies:
    **Western Rockhopper Penguin E. c. chrysocome - southern Atlantic (mainly Falkland Islands and islands off southern Chile).
    **Eastern Rockhopper Penguin E. c. filholi - Campbell, Auckland, Antipodes, Macquarie, Heard, Kerguelen, Crozet, Marion, and Prince Edward Islands.
    Captive status: quite common in captivity, found in Asia, Europe, South America and North America in numerous collections. Most collections list their birds as just "Southern Rockhopper" but they are probably almost all Western Rockhoppers. There are very few Eastern Rockhoppers left in captivity, with birds only in Japan as far as I know.

    Photo of Western Rockhopper by @lintworm in the wild, Falkland Islands, in 2017.

    [​IMG]
    Southern rockhopper | ZooChat

    Photo of Eastern Rockhopper by @devilfish at Osaka Aquarium, Japan, in 2017.

    [​IMG]
    Eastern rockhopper penguin, October 2017 | ZooChat


    *Northern Rockhopper Penguin Eudyptes moseleyi
    Formerly all three forms of Rockhopper Penguin were treated as conspecific (i.e. all one species). E. moseleyi is usually split as a full species now, but not universally.
    Range: southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans (mainly Gough, Tristan da Cunha, Amsterdam, and St Paul Islands).
    No subspecies.
    Captive status: relatively rare in captivity, found in only a few collections spread through Asia, Africa, Europe and North America.

    Photo by @Javan Rhino at Edinburgh Zoo, UK, in 2012.

    [​IMG]
    Northern rockhopper penguin | ZooChat


    *African Penguin Spheniscus demersus
    Alternative names: Black-footed Penguin; Jackass Penguin
    Range: southern Africa.
    No subspecies.
    Captive status: very common, found in numerous collections everywhere except Australasia and South America.

    Photo by @Dormitator at Birdworld, UK, in 2018.

    [​IMG]
    African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) | ZooChat


    *Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti
    Alternative names: Chilean Penguin; Peruvian Penguin
    Range: Chile, Peru.
    No subspecies.
    Captive status: very common, found in numerous collections everywhere except Australasia and Africa.

    Photo by @Fresco3 at Chessington Zoo, UK, in 2017.

    [​IMG]
    Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) | ZooChat


    *Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus
    Range: Argentina, Chile, Falkland Islands.
    No subspecies.
    Captive status: less common than African or Humboldt Penguins, but still found in multiple collections in Asia, Europe, South America and North America.

    Photo by @NigeW at Blackpool Zoo, UK, in 2018.

    [​IMG]
    Magellanic Penguin at Blackpool Zoo 15th Feb 2018 | ZooChat


    *Galapagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus
    Range: Galapagos Islands.
    No subspecies.
    Captive status: none currently in captivity, but has been kept in the past in the USA and Bermuda as below.

    - Bermuda Aquarium (Bermuda): as of 1938 the Aquarium had eight pairs and had apparently kept the species for fifteen years (i.e. since about 1923). The penguins bred at the Aquarium in the 1930s but most eggs were infertile. (http://www.izn.org.uk/Archive/181/181.pdf). They were still kept in 1968 (as per this newspaper article: Independent Press-Telegram from Long Beach, California on May 19, 1968 · Page 118).

    - Bronx Zoo (USA): the two birds at the New York Aquarium (see below) came from the Bronx Zoo.

    - New York Aquarium (USA): two birds kept, one of which came to the USA in 1926 and the other in 1927. At the time the following article was published (in 1927) one of these had died through an accidental fall. The article seems to suggest that the two birds were survivors of a larger group kept at the Bronx Zoo but it isn't explicit if they were all of this species. (https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v044n04/p0509-p0512.pdf).

    - Point Defiance Zoo (USA): at least one bird kept. As of the following 1969 newspaper article, the penguin had been alone at the zoo for 18 years. (Press and Sun-Bulletin from Binghamton, New York on May 21, 1969 · Page 29).

    - San Diego Zoo (USA): at least two birds in the 1930s (the following photo is from 1939: Isabel and Isadore). They were collected from the Galapagos during the Hancock Expedition in 1933.

    - SeaWorld San Diego (USA): I have seen a passing reference to this but no further information.

    Photo by @elefante in the wild, Galapagos Islands, in 2015.

    [​IMG]
    Gal?pagos penguins and Brown pelican | ZooChat
     
    Last edited: 9 Oct 2018
  2. Chlidonias

    Chlidonias Moderator Staff Member

    Joined:
    13 Jun 2007
    Posts:
    19,241
    Location:
    everywhere
    Break-down of total numbers for each region


    Australasian holdings are from my own data. Asian, African and South American holdings were mostly obtained by searching on Google, so there will likely be omissions. European holdings were taken directly from Zootierliste. North American holdings were mostly provided by @jayjds2

    The top countries for penguins are Japan and USA with twelve species, Spain, UK and China with nine, Germany with seven, Singapore with six or seven, Taiwan and France with six, South Korea and Belgium and Canada with five, and then lots with between one and four species. (Technically New Zealand has eight or nine species viewable, but only four or five are in actual zoo situations).


    AUSTRALIA:
    *Four species (King, Gentoo, Australian Little Blue, Fiordland Crested).


    NEW ZEALAND:
    *Four or five species in zoos (King, Gentoo, New Zealand Little Blue, White-flippered, probably Australian Little Blue also), plus another four as permanent/temporary/potential rescue birds (Yellow-eyed, Fiordland Crested, Snares Crested, Erect-crested).


    ASIA:
    *Twelve species (Emperor, King, Adelie, Chinstrap, Gentoo, Australian Little Blue, Macaroni, Southern/Western/Eastern Rockhopper, Northern Rockhopper, African, Humboldt, Magellanic).

    There don't appear to be any zoos with penguins in Central Asia. Wikipedia lists "penguin" for the Eram (Tehran) Zoo in Iran, but I can't find any corroboration. Pakistan has a lot of zoos and aquariums, but I couldn't find any keeping penguins.

    In the rest of Asia most countries have at least one or two collections with penguins, although they seem few compared to what I expected. There is only one zoo or aquarium with penguins in Burma, Hong Kong, India, North Korea, and apparently the Philippines (although that seems unlikely); two in Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam; surprisingly I could only find six in Indonesia (all on Java) and seven or eight in Thailand, so I'm sure I missed some. I couldn't find any in Cambodia or Laos, and there are definitely none in Sri Lanka.

    The top three Asian countries for penguins are South Korea, China and Japan, all with a bewildering number of aquariums and zoos so I have undoubtably missed many there. Mostly I have located holders by googling the zoos and aquariums and trying to find photos from the collections. In South Korea almost all of the collections which have penguins keep mixed groups of Humboldt and African Penguins. China is particularly difficult to find information on as there are often several major aquariums in one city and multiple aquariums in different cities but with the same brand name, making things very confusing. There are also a lot of temporary movements of penguins during winter festivals (even Emperor Penguins will get used in outdoor festival shows). Japan's listings were primarily obtained through the JAZA website. I have ignored all the "penguin cafes" in Japan.

    Country breakdown for Asia (listed alphabetically):
    *Burma (Myanmar): one or two species (Humboldt and maybe African).
    *China: nine species (Emperor, King, Adelie, Chinstrap, Gentoo, Southern Rockhopper, African, Humboldt, Magellanic).
    *Hong Kong: three species (King, Gentoo, Southern Rockhopper).
    *India: one species (Humboldt).
    *Indonesia: two species (African, Humboldt).
    *Japan: twelve species (Emperor, King, Adelie, Chinstrap, Gentoo, Australian Little Blue, Macaroni, Southern/Western/Eastern Rockhopper, Northern Rockhopper, African, Humboldt, Magellanic).
    *Malaysia: three species (Northern Rockhopper, African, Humboldt).
    *North Korea: one species (Humboldt).
    *Philippines: one species (Humboldt).
    *Singapore: six or seven species (King, Gentoo, Australian Little Blue (still?), Macaroni, Southern Rockhopper, African, Humboldt).
    *South Korea: five species (King, Chinstrap, Gentoo, African, Humboldt).
    *Taiwan: six species (King, Adelie, Chinstrap, Gentoo, Macaroni, African).
    *Thailand: three or four species (King (?), Gentoo, African, Humboldt).
    *Vietnam: two species (Gentoo, African).


    MIDDLE EAST:
    *Four species (King, Gentoo, Humboldt, African).
    Many of the Middle Eastern countries aren't in much shape for keeping penguins (or any other animals) in their zoos, but I was surprised how few there are in the self-indulgent UAE. I disregarded private collections and probably overlooked some holders, but was expecting to find a lot more than I did. Apart for the UAE (with King, Gentoo, and Humboldt), the only other countries with penguins appear to be Israel (with African and Humboldt), Kuwait (with African) and Saudi Arabia (with Humboldt). The Palm Mall Aquarium in Oman, scheduled to be completed in 2018, will apparently have African Penguins.


    AFRICA:
    *Five species (King, Chinstrap, Gentoo, Northern Rockhopper, African).

    Country breakdown for Africa (listed alphabetically):
    *Egypt: two species (Chinstrap, Gentoo)
    *South Africa: three species (King, Northern Rockhopper, African)


    EUROPE:
    *Eleven species (King, Adelie, Chinstrap, Gentoo, Australian Little Blue, Macaroni, Western Rockhopper, Northern Rockhopper, African, Humboldt, Magellanic).

    Country breakdown for Europe (listed alphabetically):
    All the listings are taken directly from the information on Zootierliste.
    *Austria: three species (King, Northern Rockhopper, Humboldt).
    *Belgium: five species (King, Gentoo, Macaroni, African, Humboldt).
    *Bulgaria: one species (Gentoo).
    *Cyprus: one species (Humboldt).
    *Czech Republic: two species (African, Humboldt).
    *Denmark: four species (King, Gentoo, Western Rockhopper, Humboldt).
    *France: six species (King, Gentoo, Macaroni, Western Rockhopper, African, Humboldt).
    *Georgia: one species (African).
    *Germany: seven species (King, Gentoo, Western Rockhopper, Northern Rockhopper, African, Humboldt, Magellanic).
    *Greece: one species (African).
    *Hungary: two species (African, Humboldt).
    *Ireland: two species (Gentoo, Humboldt).
    *Italy: four species (Gentoo, African, Humboldt, Magellanic).
    *Lithuania: one species (African).
    *Luxembourg: one species (Humboldt).
    *Netherlands: four species (King, Gentoo, African, Humboldt).
    *Norway: two species (Gentoo, Humboldt).
    *Poland: two species (African, Humboldt).
    *Portugal: four species (Western Rockhopper, African, Humboldt, Magellanic).
    *Russia: three species (Gentoo, African, Humboldt).
    *Slovakia: one species (Humboldt).
    *Spain: nine species (King, Adelie, Chinstrap, Gentoo, Macaroni, Western Rockhopper, African, Humboldt, Magellanic).
    *Sweden: one species (Humboldt).
    *Switzerland: three species (King, African, Humboldt).
    *Turkey: one species (African).
    *United Kingdom: eight species (King, Gentoo, Australian Little Blue, Macaroni, Western Rockhopper, Northern Rockhopper, African, Humboldt, Magellanic).


    CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA:
    *Four species (King, Western Rockhopper, Humboldt, Magellanic).

    Country breakdown for Central and South America (the latter listed alphabetically):
    *Guatemala: one species (Humboldt).
    *Argentina: four species (King, Western Rockhopper, Humboldt, Magellanic).
    *Brazil: one species (Magellanic).
    *Chile: two species (Humboldt, Magellanic).
    *Peru: one species (Humboldt).

    There don't appear to be any zoos in the Caribbean with penguins, and only one in Central America (La Aurora Zoo in Guatemala with Humboldt Penguins). I couldn't find much for South America - surprisingly, most countries seem to be penguin-free. I only found information for penguins being kept in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru. Brazil in particular has a lot of collections keeping penguins, and I've very probably missed some. I think the reason for this is that large numbers of Magellanic Penguins (from Argentina) have turned up off Brazil's beaches and been taken into rescue centres, and then a lot of the birds which couldn't be released would have been sent to zoos and aquariums.


    NORTH AMERICA:
    *Twelve species (Emperor, King, Adelie, Chinstrap, Gentoo, Australian Little Blue, Macaroni, Southern Rockhopper, Northern Rockhopper, African, Humboldt, Magellanic).

    Country breakdown for North America (listed alphabetically):
    *Canada: five species (King, Gentoo, Macaroni, Northern Rockhopper, Humboldt).
    *Mexico: four species (Adelie, Chinstrap, Gentoo, Humboldt).
    *United States of America: twelve species (Emperor, King, Adelie, Chinstrap, Gentoo, Australian Little Blue, Macaroni, Southern Rockhopper, Northern Rockhopper, African, Humboldt, Magellanic).
     
    Last edited: 30 Sep 2018
  3. Chlidonias

    Chlidonias Moderator Staff Member

    Joined:
    13 Jun 2007
    Posts:
    19,241
    Location:
    everywhere
    LISTINGS BY SPECIES:

    Penguin species currently held in zoos and aquariums worldwide. Holdings are arranged under each species by region (in order of Australasia, Asia, Middle East, Africa, Europe, Central and South America, North America) and further broken down within each region by country, in alphabetical order.

    Where possible I have included brief mention of the origin of the collections' stocks, but I have not given current numbers. (So, for a given collection I might say something like "4.4 birds imported from USA in 2009" but I won't make any comment on how many birds they have now). However I haven't attempted to provide any origin data for any of the European or North American collections as there are too many of them.


    ...........................................................................................

    *Emperor Penguin Aptenodytes forsteri

    ASIA:
    China:
    - Beijing Pacific Underwater World (Taiping Yang Ocean Park): might no longer be present.
    - Dalian Laohutan Ocean Park
    - Nanjing Underwater World: this place was the original holder of Emperor Penguins in China, with six birds wild-caught in 2005 and distributed between Nanjing, Beijing Pacific Underwater World, and Sunasia Ocean World in Dalian - it seems the six were then grouped back together at Nanjing where they bred for the first time in 2009. Now there are loads of the species in China (presumably via more wild-captured imports) - every aquarium which keeps them appears to have large breeding groups.
    - Qingdao Haichang Polar Ocean World
    - Sunasia Ocean World and Polar World in Dalian (Shengya Ocean World): might no longer be present.
    - Tianjin Haichang Polar Ocean World
    - Wuhan Haichang Polar Ocean World
    - Zhuhai Chimelong Ocean Kingdom
    Japan:
    - Port of Nagoya Aquarium
    - Wakayama Adventure World

    NORTH AMERICA:
    United States of America:
    - SeaWorld San Diego

    ...........................................................................................

    *King Penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus

    AUSTRALASIA:
    [All Australasian birds are of the nominate subspecies A. p. patagonicus, descended from 20 birds imported to Kelly Tarltons (NZ) in 1994 from SeaWorld San Antonio (USA), which in turn were descended from birds collected (as eggs) on South Georgia in 1988 (Antarctic Penguins - SeaWorld Orlando, San Antonio and San Diego). The Australian population is derived entirely from birds imported from Kelly Tarltons from 2008 onwards]
    Australia:
    - Melbourne Aquarium
    - Sea World Gold Coast
    - Sydney Aquarium
    New Zealand:
    - Kelly Tarltons SEA LIFE Aquarium

    ASIA:
    [For most of the Asian holdings I have no idea on subspecies]
    China:
    - Chengdu Haichang Polar Ocean World
    - Dalian Laohutan Ocean Park
    - Grandview Mall Aquarium in Guangzhou
    - Hangzhou Polar Ocean World
    - Harbin Polar Land
    - Qingdao Haichang Polar Ocean World
    - Shenzhen Xiaomeisha Seaworld (Shenzhen Aquarium)
    - Sunasia Ocean World and Polar World in Dalian (Shengya Ocean World)
    - Wuhan Haichang Polar Ocean World
    - Zhuhai Chimelong Ocean Kingdom
    Hong Kong:
    - Ocean Park: penguins (of three species - King, Gentoo, Southern Rockhopper) imported between 2006 and 2011 from collections in Japan and the USA.
    Japan:
    - AQUAS Aquarium (in Iwami Seaside Park)
    - Asahiyama Zoo
    - Beachland
    - Echizen Aquarium
    - Higashiyama Zoo and Botanic Garden
    - Kobe Oji Zoo
    - Nagasaki Penguin Aquarium
    - Noboribetsu Marine Park Nixe
    - Non Hoi Park Zoo and Botanic Garden
    - Osaka Tennoji Zoo
    - Port of Nagoya Aquarium (?)
    - Tobu Zoo
    - Wakayama Adventure World
    - Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradise
    Singapore:
    - Jurong Bird Park
    South Korea:
    - 63 Sea World
    Taiwan:
    - Taipei Zoo: 1.3 were imported from Japan in September 2000 (in mistake for 2.2), followed by another ten from the USA in December 2000. Also in March 2011 the zoo received the last surviving bird (a male) from the National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium (Taiwan); their birds had been imported in 2005 from Kelly Tarltons in New Zealand (and hence were of the nominate subspecies A. p. patagonicus).
    Thailand:
    - possibly Chiang Mai Zoo: they were "coming soon" when I was there in 2014 but I can't see anything to say they arrived.

    MIDDLE EAST:
    United Arab Emirates:
    - Ski Dubai: ten imported from SeaWorld San Antonio (USA) in January 2012 (and hence of the nominate subspecies A. p. patagonicus).

    AFRICA:
    [African birds are rescues of local origin, and hence of the subspecies A. p. halli]
    South Africa:
    - National [Pretoria] Zoo (rescue birds)

    EUROPE:
    [Zootierliste does not separate the King Penguin listings into subspecies, so all the European holdings are provided here without comment]
    Austria:
    - Tierpark Schonbrunn
    Belgium:
    - Antwerp Zoo
    Denmark:
    - Odense Zoo
    France:
    - Marineland (Antibes)
    - Oceanopolis
    - Sea Life Paris Val d'Europe
    Germany:
    - Berlin Zoo
    - Hamburg Zoo (Tierpark Hagenbeck)
    - Tierpark Hellabrunn
    - Wuppertal Zoo
    Netherlands:
    - Rotterdam Zoo (Diergaarde Blijdorp)
    Spain:
    - Faunia Madrid
    - Selwo Marina Delfinarium
    - Loro Parque (Canary Islands)
    Switzerland:
    - Zurich Zoo
    United Kingdom:
    - Birdland Park and Gardens
    - Edinburgh Zoo

    SOUTH AMERICA:
    [All South American birds are rescues of local origin, and hence of the nominate subspecies A. p. patagonicus]
    Argentina:
    - Aquarium Mar del Plata
    - Mundo Marino (?)

    NORTH AMERICA:
    [The North American zoo population has birds obtained from the ranges of both subspecies, but they are generally not distinguished in the zoos and are just mixed regardless of origin]
    Canada:
    - Biodome de Montreal
    - Calgary Zoo
    United States of America:
    - Central Park Zoo
    - Cincinnati Zoo
    - Detroit Zoo
    - Indianapolis Zoo
    - Kansas City Zoo
    - Moody Gardens
    - Newport Aquarium
    - Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium
    - Riverbanks Zoo
    - Saint Louis Zoo
    - SeaWorld Orlando
    - SeaWorld San Antonio
    - SeaWorld San Diego

    ...........................................................................................

    *Adelie Penguin Pygoscelis adeliae

    ASIA:
    China:
    - Grandview Mall Aquarium in Guangzhou
    - Harbin Polar Land (still?)
    - Qingdao Haichang Polar Ocean World
    - Tianjin Haichang Polar Ocean World
    - Wuhan Haichang Polar Ocean World
    - Zhuhai Chimelong Ocean Kingdom
    Japan:
    - Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan
    - Port of Nagoya Aquarium
    - Wakayama Adventure World
    - Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradise
    Taiwan:
    - National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium

    EUROPE:
    Spain:
    - Faunia Madrid

    NORTH AMERICA:
    Mexico:
    - Guadalajara Zoo: 6.6 birds imported from Japan in 2015
    United States of America:
    - SeaWorld Orlando
    - SeaWorld San Diego

    ...........................................................................................

    *Chinstrap Penguin Pygoscelis antarctica

    ASIA:
    China:
    - Qingdao Haichang Polar Ocean World
    - Sunasia Ocean World and Polar World in Dalian (Shengya Ocean World)
    - Tianjin Haichang Polar Ocean World
    - Zhuhai Chimelong Ocean Kingdom
    Japan:
    - Nagasaki Penguin Aquarium
    - Port of Nagoya Aquarium
    - Wakayama Adventure World
    South Korea:
    - National Institute of Ecology in Seocheon: 3.2 were imported in November 2012 from the Port of Nagoya Aquarium (Japan).
    Taiwan:
    - National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium

    AFRICA:
    Egypt:
    - Ski Egypt (Cairo): sources are contradictory, but state that either twenty penguins (Chinstraps and Gentoos) arrived from China in February 2018, or that ten penguins (Chinstraps and Gentoos) arrived from Japan in February 2018 or June 2018.

    EUROPE:
    Spain:
    - Faunia Madrid
    - Loro Parque (Canary Islands)

    NORTH AMERICA:
    Mexico:
    - Acuario Inbursa: imported from Japan in early 2016
    United States of America:
    - Central Park Zoo
    - Moody Gardens
    - Newport Aquarium
    - SeaWorld Orlando
    - SeaWorld San Antonio
    - SeaWorld San Diego

    ...........................................................................................

    *Gentoo Penguin Pygoscelis papua

    AUSTRALASIA:
    [All Australasian birds are of the nominate subspecies P. p. papua, descended from 29 birds imported to Kelly Tarltons (NZ) in 1995 from Edinburgh Zoo (UK). The Australian population is derived entirely from imports from Kelly Tarltons from 2008 onwards]
    Australia:
    - Melbourne Aquarium
    - Sea World Gold Coast
    - Sydney Aquarium
    New Zealand:
    - Kelly Tarltons SEA LIFE Aquarium

    ASIA:
    China:
    [Chinese birds are of unknown subspecies]
    - Chengdu Haichang Polar Ocean World
    - Grandview Mall Aquarium in Guangzhou
    - Guangzhou Ocean World (in Guangzhou Zoo)
    - Hangzhou Polar Ocean World
    - Harbin Polar Land
    - Shenzhen Xiaomeisha Seaworld (Shenzhen Aquarium)
    - Solnan Lifestyle Shopping Park (Happy Group of Penguins Restaurant)
    - Sunasia Ocean World and Polar World in Dalian (Shengya Ocean World)
    - Tianjin Haichang Polar Ocean World
    - Zhuhai Chimelong Ocean Kingdom
    Hong Kong:
    [Hong Kong birds are of unknown subspecies]
    - Ocean Park: penguins (of three species - King, Gentoo, Southern Rockhopper) imported between 2006 and 2011 from collections in Japan and the USA.
    Japan:
    [Japanese birds are of various origins - I have noted subspecies after each collection. These subspecific identities are as presented on the JAZA website]
    - AQUAS Aquarium (in Iwami Seaside Park) (P. p. ellsworthi)
    - Asahiyama Zoo (P. p. papua)
    - Beachland (P. p. ellsworthi)
    - Echizen Aquarium (unknown subspecies)
    - Fukuyama Zoo (unknown subspecies)
    - Gao Aquarium (P. p. ellsworthi)
    - Kamogawa Sea World (unknown subspecies)
    - Nagasaki Penguin Aquarium (unknown subspecies)
    - Nasu Animal Kingdom (P. p. ellsworthi)
    - Noboribetsu Marine Park Nixe (P. p. papua)
    - Noichi Zoo (P. p. papua)
    - Non Hoi Park Zoo and Botanic Garden (P. p. papua)
    - Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan (P. p. ellsworthi)
    - Otaru Aquarium (P. p. papua)
    - Port of Nagoya Aquarium (unknown subspecies)
    - Wakayama Adventure World (P. p. ellsworthi)
    - Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradise (P. p. papua)
    Singapore:
    [Singapore birds are of unknown subspecies]
    - Jurong Bird Park: imported as eggs from Hong Kong Ocean Park in November 2017.
    South Korea:
    [South Korean birds are of unknown subspecies]
    - National Institute of Ecology in Seocheon: 4.2 were imported in November 2012 from the Port of Nagoya Aquarium (Japan).
    Taiwan:
    [Taiwanese birds are of unknown subspecies]
    - National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium: probably imported from Kelly Tarltons in New Zealand along with their King Penguins (in 2005), which would make them the subspecies P. p. papua, but I don't know for sure.
    Thailand:
    [Thailand birds are of the nominate subspecies P. p. papua]
    - SEA LIFE Bangkok (Siam Ocean World): ten were imported from Legoland Billund (Denmark) in December 2014.
    Vietnam:
    [Vietnamese birds of the nominate subspecies P. p. papua]
    - Vinpearl Land Phu Quoc: fifteen imported from "Australia" according to articles (I think most likely Kelly Tarltons in New Zealand).

    MIDDLE EAST:
    United Arab Emirates:
    [All birds in the UAE are of the nominate subspecies P. p. papua]
    - Dubai Aquarium: six imported from Edinburgh Zoo (UK) in July 2010.
    - Ski Dubai: ten imported from San Antonio SeaWorld (USA) in January 2012.

    AFRICA:
    Egypt:
    - Ski Egypt (Cairo): sources are contradictory, but state that either twenty penguins (Chinstraps and Gentoos) arrived from China in February 2018, or that ten penguins (Chinstraps and Gentoos) arrived from Japan in February 2018 or June 2018

    EUROPE:
    [The European population is almost entirely of the nominate subspecies P. p. papua according to Zootierliste. I have noted below which collections hold the other subspecies P. p. ellsworthi]
    Belgium:
    - Antwerp Zoo
    Bulgaria:
    - Sofia Zoo
    Denmark:
    - Legoland Billund
    - Odense Zoo (holds both P. p. papua and P. p. ellsworthi according to Zootierliste)
    France:
    - Oceanopolis
    Germany:
    - Frankfurt Zoo
    - Hamburg Zoo (Tierpark Hagenbeck)
    - Sea Life Konstanz
    - Sea Life Oberhausen
    - Tierpark Hellabrunn
    - Wuppertal Zoo
    Ireland:
    - Dingle Oceanworld Aquarium
    Italy:
    - Aquarium of Genoa
    Netherlands:
    - Rotterdam Zoo (Diergaarde Blijdorp) (holds only P. p. ellsworthi according to Zootierliste)
    Norway:
    - Bergen Aquarium
    - Oslo Reptilpark
    Russia:
    - Roev Ruchy Zoo
    Spain:
    - Faunia Madrid
    - Oceanografic Valencia
    - Selwo Marina Delfinarium
    - Loro Parque (Canary Islands)
    United Kingdom:
    - Belfast Zoo (holds both P. p. papua and P. p. ellsworthi according to Zootierliste)
    - Edinburgh Zoo (holds both P. p. papua and P. p. ellsworthi according to Zootierliste)
    - National Sea Life Centre Birmingham
    - Sea Life London Aquarium
    - The Deep

    NORTH AMERICA:
    [Most collections in North America hold P. p. ellsworthi but there are P. p. papua and "non-subspecific" birds as well. Numerically the P. p. papua probably outnumber the P. p. ellsworthi despite being in fewer collections. Subspecific identities are mostly via ZIMS, hence the inclusion of "non-subspecific birds"]
    Canada:
    - Biodome de Montreal (has both P. p. ellsworthi and non-subspecific birds)
    - Calgary Zoo (has both P. p. papua and non-subspecific birds)
    Mexico:
    - Acuario Inbursa: imported from Japan in early 2016 (unknown subspecies)
    - Guadalajara Zoo: imported from Japan in early 2017? (unknown subspecies)
    United States of America:
    - Central Park Zoo (has both P. p. ellsworthi and non-subspecific birds)
    - Detroit Zoo (has both P. p. papua and P. p. ellsworthi)
    - Indianapolis Zoo (has both P. p. ellsworthi and non-subspecific birds)
    - Kansas City Zoo (has both P. p. ellsworthi and non-subspecific birds)
    - Loveland Living Planet Aquarium (P. p. ellsworthi)
    - Milwaukee County Zoo (P. p. ellsworthi)
    - Moody Gardens (P. p. ellsworthi)
    - Newport Aquarium (probably P. p. ellsworthi or non-subspecific [their original stock came from the Bronx Zoo])
    - Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium (P. p. papua)
    - Pittsburgh Zoo (P. p. ellsworthi)
    - Riverbanks Zoo (P. p. ellsworthi)
    - Saint Louis Zoo (P. p. ellsworthi)
    - SeaWorld Orlando (P. p. papua as below)
    - SeaWorld San Antonio (P. p. papua - the original SeaWorld stock of Gentoo and King Penguins was collected from the South Georgia Islands in 1988 for SeaWorld San Antonio: see Antarctic Penguins - SeaWorld Orlando, San Antonio and San Diego)
    - SeaWorld San Diego (P. p. papua as above)
    - Tennessee Aquarium (P. p. papua)
    - Wonders of Wildlife (P. p. papua)

    ...........................................................................................

    *Australian Little Blue Penguin (Fairy Penguin) Eudyptula novaehollandiae

    AUSTRALASIA:
    Australia:
    - Adelaide Zoo
    - Ballarat Wildlife Park
    - Billabong Koala and Wildlife Park
    - Caversham Wildlife Park
    - Dolphin Marine Magic
    - Featherdale Wildlife Park
    - Gorge Wildlife Park
    - Jirrhalinga Koala and Wildlife Sanctuary
    - Kangaroo Island Wildlife Park
    - Manly SEA LIFE Sanctuary
    - Melbourne Zoo
    - National Zoo and Aquarium
    - Perth Zoo
    - Sydney Aquarium
    - Sea World Gold Coast
    - Taronga Zoo
    - Tasmania Zoo
    New Zealand:
    - There are probably some Australian Little Blue Penguins held in New Zealand from the Otago population, as the taxonomic split is recent and certainly birds have come into rescue situations from this area. All Little Blue Penguins kept in New Zealand are rescue birds and they are legally not breeding stock.

    ASIA:
    Japan:
    - Nagasaki Penguin Aquarium
    - Tokyo Sealife Park
    - Wakayama Adventure World
    - Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradise
    Singapore:
    - Jurong Bird Park: twelve birds were imported in December 1990 from Taronga Zoo (Australia). May no longer be any left at Jurong.

    EUROPE:
    United Kingdom:
    - Sea Life Weymouth: 20 birds imported in May 2018 from Australia, following the closure of the Manly Aquarium in Sydney.

    NORTH AMERICA:
    United States of America:
    - Adventure Aquarium
    - Bronx Zoo
    - Cincinnati Zoo
    - Dallas World Aquarium
    - Louisville Zoo
    - New England Aquarium

    ...........................................................................................

    *New Zealand Little Blue Penguin Eudyptula minor

    AUSTRALASIA:
    New Zealand:
    - Auckland Zoo
    - Brooklands Zoo
    - International Antarctic Centre
    - National Aquarium
    - Picton Eco-World
    - Wellington Zoo

    ...........................................................................................

    *White-flippered Penguin Eudyptula "albosignata"

    AUSTRALASIA:
    New Zealand:
    - International Antarctic Centre (rescue birds)
    - National Aquarium: they obtained one bird in 2012 from the now-closed Napier Marineland, but probably no longer there.

    ...........................................................................................

    *Yellow-eyed Penguin Megadyptes antipodes

    AUSTRALASIA:
    New Zealand:
    - Penguin Place (rescue birds held for varying lengths of time)

    ...........................................................................................

    *Fiordland Crested Penguin Eudyptes pachyrhynchus

    AUSTRALASIA:
    Australia:
    - Taronga Zoo: currently 1.2 rescue birds from Australia, and 0.1 rescue bird from New Zealand. (Two other females formerly, from 1994/1995 to 2010).
    New Zealand:
    - Wellington Zoo (rescue birds held temporarily on occasion)
    - Sometimes can also be seen at Penguin Place (rescue birds).

    ...........................................................................................

    *Snares Crested Penguin Eudyptes robustus

    AUSTRALASIA:
    New Zealand:
    - Penguin Place (at least one rescue bird held recently - I don't know if it is a permanent resident or has been released)

    ...........................................................................................

    *Erect-crested Penguin Eudyptes sclateri

    AUSTRALASIA:
    New Zealand:
    - Penguin Place (rescue birds held frequently - I don't know if any are permanent residents)

    ...........................................................................................

    *Macaroni Penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus

    ASIA:
    Japan:
    - Nagasaki Penguin Aquarium
    Singapore:
    - Jurong Bird Park
    Taiwan:
    - National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium

    EUROPE:
    Belgium:
    - Antwerp Zoo
    France:
    - Marineland (Antibes)
    Spain:
    - Selwo Marina Delfinarium
    United Kingdom:
    - Living Coasts
    - Folly Farm

    NORTH AMERICA:
    Canada:
    - Biodome de Montreal
    United States of America:
    - Central Park Zoo
    - Detroit Zoo
    - Moody Gardens
    - Newport Aquarium
    - Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium
    - Pittsburgh Zoo
    - SeaWorld San Diego
    - Tennessee Aquarium

    ...........................................................................................

    *Southern Rockhopper Penguin Eudyptes chrysocome
    [Most captive birds of this species are just labelled as "Southern Rockhopper". Most are likely to be Western Rockhoppers E. c. chrysocome but there are at least some Eastern Rockhoppers E. c. filholi still in Japan. In the listings below I have noted where holdings are either Western or Eastern, if I know (for Asian zoos and aquariums this is mostly through googling photos of the collections' birds). All birds in European collections are Western Rockhoppers (as per Zootierliste), and all birds in South America are of local origin and hence also Western Rockhoppers.]

    ASIA:
    China:
    - Hangzhou Polar Ocean World
    - Qingdao Haichang Polar Ocean World
    - Tianjin Haichang Polar Ocean World (present?)
    Hong Kong:
    - Ocean Park: penguins (of three species - King, Gentoo, Southern Rockhopper) imported between 2006 and 2011 from collections in Japan and the USA.
    Japan:
    - Asahiyama Zoo (Western E. c. chrysocome)
    - Echizen Aquarium
    - Kamogawa Sea World
    - Nagasaki Penguin Aquarium (from photos, both Western E. c. chrysocome and Eastern E. c. filholi are kept here)
    - Niigata City Aquarium
    - Non Hoi Park Zoo and Botanic Garden (Western E. c. chrysocome)
    - Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan (from photos, both Western E. c. chrysocome and Eastern E. c. filholi are kept here)
    - Tokyo Sealife Park
    - Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradise
    Singapore:
    - Jurong Bird Park (formerly held all three Rockhoppers [Western, Eastern, Northern] so I'm not sure which they have left now]

    EUROPE:
    [According to Zootierliste all birds in European collections are Western Rockhoppers E. c. chrysocome]
    Denmark:
    - Odense Zoo
    France:
    - Marineland (Antibes)
    - Oceanopolis
    Germany:
    - Berlin Zoo
    Portugal:
    - Lisbon Oceanarium
    Spain:
    - Faunia Madrid
    - Loro Parque (Canary Islands)
    United Kingdom:
    - Belfast Zoo

    SOUTH AMERICA:
    [South American birds are of local origin, and hence are all Western Rockhoppers E. c. chrysocome]
    Argentina:
    - Aquarium Mar del Plata (?)
    - Buenos Aires Zoo
    - Mundo Marino

    NORTH AMERICA:
    [All North American birds are just listed as "Southern Rockhoppers". They are likely to all be Western Rockhoppers E. c. chrysocome]
    Canada:
    - Calgary Zoo
    United States of America:
    - Central Park Zoo
    - Cincinnati Zoo
    - Detroit Zoo
    - Fort Worth Zoo
    - Indianapolis Zoo
    - Louisville Zoo
    - Milwaukee County Zoo
    - Moody Gardens
    - New England Aquarium
    - Newport Aquarium
    - Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium
    - Riverbanks Zoo
    - Saint Louis Zoo
    - SeaWorld Orlando
    - SeaWorld San Antonio
    - Shedd Aquarium

    ...........................................................................................

    *Northern Rockhopper Penguin Eudyptes moseleyi

    ASIA:
    Japan:
    - AQUAS Aquarium (in Iwami Seaside Park)
    - Gao Aquarium
    - Higashiyama Zoo and Botanic Garden
    - Keikyu Aburatsubo Marine Park
    - Sunpiazza Aquarium
    - Wakayama Adventure World
    Malaysia:
    - Underwater World Langkawi: twenty birds were imported in December 2003 from a South African dealer, collected from the wild on Nightingale Island.

    AFRICA:
    South Africa:
    - Bayworld Oceanarium (rescue birds)
    - Two Oceans Aquarium (rescue birds)

    EUROPE:
    Austria:
    - Tierpark Schonbrunn
    Germany:
    - Tierpark Hellabrunn
    United Kingdom:
    - Drusillas Zoo Park
    - Edinburgh Zoo
    - Whipsnade Zoo

    NORTH AMERICA:
    Canada:
    - Biodome de Montreal
    - Calgary Zoo
    United States of America:
    - Moody Gardens

    ...........................................................................................

    *African Penguin Spheniscus demersus

    ASIA:
    Burma (Myanmar):
    - possibly Naypyitaw Zoo: 4.5 Humboldt Penguins were imported in October 2016 from Japan, but a couple in the photo linked here look like African Penguins (Naypyitaw Zoo welcomes 9 new (and pricey) Humboldt Penguins | Coconuts Yangon).
    China:
    - Chengdu Zoo
    - Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo (with Magellanic Penguins)
    Indonesia:
    - Gembira Loka Zoo (Java)
    Japan:
    - Chiba Zoo
    - Himeji Central Park
    - ISE Sea Paradise
    - Izu Mitsu Sea Paradise
    - Izu Shaboten Zoo
    - Kobe Animal Kingdom
    - Kurume Bird Centre
    - Kyoto Aquarium
    - Marine World Umino-Nakamichi
    - Miyazaki City Zoo
    - Nagasaki Penguin Aquarium
    - Nasu Animal Kingdom
    - Noboribetsu Marine Park Nixe
    - Port of Nagoya Aquarium
    - Shima Marineland
    - Sunshine Aquarium
    - Ueno Zoo
    - Wakayama Adventure World
    - Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradise
    Malaysia:
    - Underwater World Langkawi: 14 birds imported in May 2005.
    Singapore:
    - Jurong Bird Park: ten were transferred over in November 2010 from the Singapore Zoo.
    - Singapore Zoo
    South Korea:
    - Children's Grand Park (just "penguins" referenced and I haven't seen any good photos for identification - typically South Korean zoos have mixed African and Humboldt Penguin flocks, so this is likely to be the case here also).
    - Daejeon O-World (with Humboldt Penguins)
    - Everland
    - Gwangju Family Land (just "penguins" referenced and I haven't seen any good photos for identification - typically South Korean zoos have mixed African and Humboldt Penguin flocks, so this is likely to be the case here also).
    - Hanwha Aqua Planet Ilsan (with Humboldt Penguins)
    - Hanwha Aqua Planet Jeju (with Humboldt Penguins)
    - Lotte World Aquarium (probably present)
    - Samjung The Park (Busan) (probably present)
    - SEA LIFE Busan (probably also Humboldt Penguins)
    - Seoul Zoo
    - 63 Sea World (with Humboldt Penguins)
    Taiwan:
    - Taipei Zoo
    Thailand:
    - SEA LIFE Bangkok (Siam Ocean World)
    Vietnam:
    - Vinpearl Land Aquarium Times City (in Hanoi): 7.8 imported from Underwater World Langkawi (Malaysia) in December 2013, reportedly with five more scheduled to be sent later.

    MIDDLE EAST:
    Israel:
    - Ramat Gan Safari Park
    - Tisch Family Biblical Zoo: 16 birds imported in 2000 (from ?), and 5 more in 2005 from the Netherlands.
    Kuwait:
    - Kuwait Scientific Centre: 4.4 imported in July 2009 from Living Coasts (UK).

    AFRICA:
    South Africa:
    - Bayworld Oceanarium
    - Bester Birds & Animals Zoo Park
    - East London Aquarium
    - Hartbeespoort Aquarium
    - Johannesburg Zoo
    - National [Pretoria] Zoo
    - SANCCOB [rescue centre]
    - Tenikwa Wildlife Centre [rescue centre]
    - Two Oceans Aquarium
    - uShaka Sea World
    - World of Birds Wildlife Sanctuary

    EUROPE:
    Belgium:
    - Antwerp Zoo
    - Pairi Daiza
    Czech Republic:
    - Usti Zoo
    France:
    - Aquarium Mare Nostrum
    - Aquarium Nausicaa
    - Le Pal
    - Mulhouse Zoo
    - NaturOparC
    - Ocearium Croisic
    - Safari de Peaugres
    - Zoo de Champrepes
    - Zoo de la Palmyre
    - Zoo de Pont-Scorff
    - Zoo des Sables d'Olonne
    Georgia:
    - Tbilisi Zoo
    Germany:
    - Aachener Tierpark
    - Allwetterzoo
    - Aquazoo Dusseldorf
    - Berlin Tierpark
    - Berlin Zoo
    - Duisburg Zoo
    - Hannover Zoo
    - Leipzig Zoo
    - Magdeburg Zoo
    - Opel Zoo
    - Stuttgart Zoo
    - Tiergarten Straubing
    - Tier- und Freizeitpark Thule
    - Wuppertal Zoo
    Greece:
    - Attica Zoo
    Hungary:
    - Budapest Zoo
    - Nagyerdei Kulturpark
    - Szeged Zoo
    - Veszprem Zoo
    Italy:
    - Acquario Marino
    - Pistoia Zoo
    - Safari Parc d'Abruzzo
    - Zoom Torino
    Lithuania:
    - Lithuanian Sea Museum
    Netherlands:
    - Amersfoort Zoo
    - Amsterdam Zoo
    - Aquazoo Friesland
    - Burgers Zoo
    - Dierenpark Zie-Zoo
    - Safaripark Beekse Bergen
    - Zoo Parc Overloon
    Poland:
    - Lodz Zoo
    - Warsaw Zoo
    - Zoo Gdansk
    - Zoo Plock
    - Zoo Wroclaw
    Portugal:
    - Lisbon Zoo
    - Zoo Lagos
    Russia:
    - Moscow Zoo
    - Roev Ruchy Zoo
    Spain:
    - Madrid Zoo
    - Magdalenas Marine Park
    Switzerland:
    - Basle Zoo
    - Tonis Zoo
    - Tropiquarium
    Turkey:
    - Faruk Yalcin Zoo
    United Kingdom:
    - Amazon World Zoo Park
    - Banham Zoo
    - Birdworld
    - Bristol Zoo
    - Combe Martin Wildlife Park
    - Living Coasts
    - Natureland Seal Sanctuary
    - Paradise Wildlife Park
    - Whipsnade Zoo

    NORTH AMERICA:
    Canada:
    - Marine Life (West Edmonton Mall)
    - Toronto Zoo
    - Vancouver Aquarium
    United States of America:
    - Adventure Aquarium
    - Busch Gardens Tampa Bay
    - Caldwell Zoo
    - CA Academy of Sciences
    - Cincinnati Zoo
    - Como Park Zoo
    - Dallas World Aquarium
    - Dallas Zoo
    - Denver Zoo
    - Erie Zoo
    - Florida Aquarium
    - Fort Wayne Children’s Zoo
    - Fort Worth Zoo
    - Georgia Aquarium
    - Henry Vilas Zoo
    - Henson Robinson Zoo
    - Lincoln Park Zoo
    - Little Rock Zoo
    - Maryland Zoo in Baltimore
    - Memphis Zoo
    - Metro Richmond Zoo
    - Minnesota Zoo
    - Monterey Bay Aquarium
    - Montgomery Zoo
    - Mystic Aquarium
    - National Aviary
    - New England Aquarium
    - New York Aquarium
    - NEW Zoo
    - Newport Aquarium
    - Pueblo Zoo
    - Racine Zoo
    - Roosevelt Park Zoo
    - San Diego Zoo
    - Seneca Park Zoo
    - Six Flags Discovery Kingdom
    - Tampa’s Lowry Park Zoo
    - Tautphaus Park Zoo
    - Timbavati Wildlife Park
    - Toledo Zoo
    - Tulsa Zoo
    - Turtle Back Zoo
    - Zoo Knoxville

    ...........................................................................................

    *Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti

    ASIA:
    Burma (Myanmar):
    - Naypyitaw Zoo: 4.5 were imported in October 2016 from Japan (Naypyitaw Zoo welcomes 9 new (and pricey) Humboldt Penguins | Coconuts Yangon), although possibly not all are Humboldt Penguins (a couple in the photo look like African Penguins). The former Humboldt Penguins at Naypyitaw had died by 2015 - they had been imported from Khao Kheow Open Zoo (Thailand) in 2010.
    China:
    - Beijing Pacific Underwater World (Taiping Yang Ocean Park)
    - Beijing Zoo
    - Nanjing Underwater World
    - Qingdao Underwater World
    - Shanghai Ocean Aquarium
    - Zhuhai Chimelong Ocean Kingdom
    India:
    - Mumbai (Byculla) Zoo: 3.5 imported in July 2016 from COEX Aquarium (South Korea).
    Indonesia:
    - Batu Secret Zoo (Java)
    - Eco Green Park Batu (Java) - eleven imported from Beauval Zoo, France, in November 2017
    - Jakarta Aquarium (Java): six obtained in December 2016 from Taman Safari Bogor (Java).
    - Seaworld Ancol (Java)
    - Taman Safari Bogor (Java): 6.6 imported in February 2008 from the Tokyo Sea Life Park (Japan).
    - Taman Safari Prigen (Java)
    Japan:
    - Akita Omoriyama Zoo
    - AQUAS Aquarium (in Iwami Seaside Park)
    - Asa Zoo
    - Asahiyama Zoo
    - Asamushi Aquarium
    - Beachland
    - Chiba Zoo
    - Echizen Aquarium
    - Fukuoka City Zoo
    - Fukuyama City Zoo
    - Hamamatsu City Zoo
    - Higashiyama Zoo and Botanic Garden
    - Hirakawa Zoo
    - Hirosaki Park Zoo
    - Hitachi City Kamine Zoo
    - Inokashira Park Zoo
    - ISE Sea Paradise
    - Izu Mitsu Sea Paradise
    - Kamogawa Sea World
    - Katsurahama Aquarium
    - Keikyu Aburatsubo Marine Park
    - Kinosaki Marine World [Hiyoriyama]
    - Kiryugaoka Zoo
    - Kobe Oji Zoo
    - Komoroshi Zoo
    - Kujukushima Zoo and Botanic Garden
    - Kumamoto Zoo and Botanic Garden
    - Kushiro City Zoo
    - Kyoto City Zoo
    - Misaki Koen Amusement Park
    - Nagano Chausuyama Zoo
    - Nagasaki Penguin Aquarium
    - Nasu Animal Kingdom
    - Niigata City Aquarium
    - Nijinomori Park
    - Nogeyama Zoo
    - Noichi Zoo
    - Non Hoi Park Zoo and Botanic Garden
    - Noshappu Aquarium
    - Notojima Aquarium
    - Oarai Aquarium
    - Osaka Tennoji Zoo
    - Otaru Aquarium
    - Saitama Childrens Zoo
    - Sapporo Maruyama Zoo
    - Shima Marineland
    - Shimoda Aquarium
    - Shizuoka Nihondaira Zoo
    - Selcohome Zoo Paradise Yagiyama [Sendai Yagiyama Zoo]
    - Sizen Zoo
    - Sunpiazza Aquarium
    - Suzaka City Zoo
    - Toba Aquarium
    - Tobe Zoo
    - Tobu Zoo
    - Tokushima Zoo
    - Tokuyama Zoo
    - Tokyo Sealife Park
    - Tokyo Tama City Animal Land
    - Toyama Family Park
    - Uozu Aquarium
    - Wakayama City Zoo
    - Yumemigasaki Zoo
    - Zoorasia
    Malaysia:
    - Zoo Negara: eight imported in January 2010 from the Czech Republic.
    North Korea:
    - Pyongyang Zoo: at least 2.2 imported from Russia.
    Philippines:
    - Manila Ocean Park
    Singapore:
    - Jurong Bird Park
    South Korea:
    - Children's Grand Park (just "penguins" referenced and I haven't seen any good photos for identification - typically South Korean zoos have mixed African and Humboldt Penguin flocks, so this is likely to be the case here also).
    - COEX Aquarium
    - Daejeon O-World (with African Penguins)
    - Gwangju Family Land (just "penguins" referenced and I haven't seen any good photos for identification - typically South Korean zoos have mixed African and Humboldt Penguin flocks, so this is likely to be the case here also).
    - Hanwha Aqua Planet Ilsan (with African Penguins)
    - Hanwha Aqua Planet Jeju (with African Penguins)
    - Lotte World Aquarium (perhaps also African Penguins)
    - Samjung The Park (Busan) (probably also African Penguins)
    - 63 Sea World (with African Penguins)
    Thailand:
    - Chiang Mai Zoo
    - Dusit (Bangkok) Zoo
    - Khao Kheow Open Zoo
    - Korat Zoo
    - Pata Zoo (may be dead now)
    - Songkhla Zoo

    MIDDLE EAST:
    Israel:
    - Kiryat Motzkin (Hay Park)
    Saudi Arabia:
    - Fakieh Aquarium: 8 birds imported from Parque Zoologico de Huachipa (Peru) in January 2018
    United Arab Emirates:
    - Al Ain Zoo: since about 1980
    - Dubai Aquarium: 15 birds imported in 2008 or 2009.

    EUROPE:
    Austria:
    - Tiergarten Schonbrunn
    Belgium:
    - Erholungspark Mont Mosan
    - Monde Sauvage Zoo
    - Planckendael
    - Sea Life Blankenberg
    Cyprus:
    - Pafos Zoo
    Czech Republic:
    - Liberec Zoo
    - Prague Zoo
    - Plzen Zoo
    - Zoo Zlin
    Denmark:
    - Aalborg Zoo
    - Copenhagen Zoo
    - Jyllands Park Zoo
    France:
    - Biotropica
    - Doue la Fontaine
    - Marineland (Antibes)
    - NaturOparC
    - Parc des Oiseaux (Villars les Dombes)
    - Vincennes Zoo
    - Zoo d'Amiens
    - Zoo d'Amneville
    - Zoo de la Fleche
    - Zoo de Jurques
    - Zoopark de Beauval
    Germany:
    - Berlin Tierpark
    - Berlin Zoo
    - Dortmund Zoo
    - Dresden Zoo
    - Jaderpark
    - Karlsruhe Zoo
    - Koln Zoo (Cologne Zoo)
    - Krefeld Zoo
    - Landau Zoo
    - Luisenpark Mannheim
    - Nuremberg Zoo
    - Rheine Naturzoo
    - Spreewelten Bad
    - Stralsund Ozeanium
    - Tierpark and Fossilium Bocchum
    - Tierpark Bernberg
    - Tierpark Cottbus
    - Tierpark Hagenbeck
    - Tierpark Hellabrunn
    - Tierpark Limbach-Oberfrohna
    - Tierpark Neumunster
    - Tierpark Sababurg
    - Tierpark Zittau
    - Vogelpark Marlow
    - Weltvogelpark (Walsrode)
    - Zoo am Meer
    - Zoo Eberswalde
    - Zoo Halle
    - Zoo Hoyerswerda
    - Zoo im Kurpark
    - Zoo Nuewied
    - Zoo Osnabruck
    - Zoo Saarbrucken
    - Zoo Schwerin
    Hungary:
    - Sosto Zoo
    Ireland:
    - Dublin Zoo
    - Fota Wildlife Park
    Italy:
    - Aquarium of Cattolica
    - Parco Faunistico Cappeller
    - Parco Faunistico le Cornelle
    - Safari Parc d'Abruzzo
    - Zoosafari Fasanolandia
    Luxembourg:
    - Parc Merveilleux
    Netherlands:
    - Aquazoo Friesland
    - Dierenpark Blankendaell
    - Ouwehands Dierenpark
    - Sea Life Scheveningen
    - Vogelpark Avifauna
    - Wildlands Adventure Zoo (Emmen Zoo)
    Norway:
    - Atlanterhavsparken
    Poland:
    - Krakow Zoo
    Portugal:
    - Zoo Santo Anacio
    Russia:
    - Moscow Oceanarium
    - Moscow Zoo
    - Novosibirsk Zoo
    - Sochi Aquarium
    - Vorobji Ornitopark
    - Voronezh Oceanarium
    Slovakia:
    - Kosice Zoo
    Spain:
    - Aquapark Mundomar
    - Barcelona Aquarium
    - Barcelona Zoo
    - Faunia Madrid
    - Los Aquilas Jungle Park (Canary Islands)
    - Loro Parque (Canary Islands)
    - Marineland Catalunya
    - Marineland Mallorca (Mallorca)
    - Oceanografic Valencia
    - Tropical Park (Canary Islands)
    Sweden:
    - Boras Djurpark
    - Slottsskogen Zoo
    Switzerland:
    - Erlebniswelt Seeteufel
    - Knies Kinderzoo
    - Zurich Zoo
    United Kingdom:
    - Birdland Park and Gardens
    - Birdworld
    - Blair Drummond Safari Park
    - Chessington World of Adventure
    - Chester Zoo
    - Colchester Zoo
    - Cotswold Wildlife Park
    - Curraghs Wildlife Park
    - Drusillas Zoo Park
    - Dudley Zoo
    - Flamingo Land
    - Folly Farm
    - Harewood Bird Garden
    - Heythrop Zoo
    - London Zoo
    - Longleat Safari Park
    - Lotherton Hall Bird Gardens
    - Marwell Zoo
    - National Seal Sanctuary
    - Newquay Zoo
    - Paradise Park
    - Paradise Wildlife Park
    - Paultons Park
    - Peak Wildlife Park
    - St Andrews Aquarium
    - Sea Life Great Yarmouth
    - Sea Life Hunstanton
    - Sea Life Scarborough
    - Sea Life Weymouth
    - Sewerby Park Zoo
    - South Lakes Wild Animal Park
    - Twycross Zoo
    - Welsh Mountain Zoo
    - West Midland Safari Park
    - Wingham Wildlife Park
    - Woburn Safari Park

    CENTRAL AMERICA:
    Guatemala:
    - La Aurora Zoo: six pairs came from Beauval Zoo in France in May 2013. These were reportedly the first penguins in Central America, and they seem to still be the only ones in the region.

    SOUTH AMERICA:
    Chile:
    - Buin Zoo (rescue birds)
    - Chilean National [Santiago] Zoo
    - Quilpue Zoo
    Peru:
    - Huachipa Zoo
    - Legends Park (Parque de las Leyendas)

    NORTH AMERICA:
    Canada:
    - Calgary Zoo
    Mexico:
    - Acuario de Veracruz: imported from Peru
    - Chapultepec Zoo: five imported from Higashiyama [Nagoya] Zoo (Japan) in February 2008
    - Leon Zoo: fourteen birds obtained in April 2018 from Acuario de Veracruz (Mexico) and Parque de las Leyendas (Peru).
    United States of America:
    - Aquarium of Niagara
    - Brookfield Zoo
    - Columbus Zoo
    - Denver Zoo
    - Great Plains Zoo
    - Kansas City Zoo
    - Milwaukee County Zoo
    - Oregon Zoo
    - Philadelphia Zoo
    - Rosamond Gifford Zoo
    - Saint Louis Zoo
    - Santa Barbara Zoo
    - SeaWorld San Diego
    - Sedgwick County Zoo
    - Woodland Park Zoo

    ...........................................................................................

    *Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus

    ASIA:
    China:
    - Chengdu Zoo: currently the zoo has African Penguins, but their original birds were Magellanic Penguins and they still had one in 2013 when I visited (probably no longer there).
    - Hangzhou Polar Ocean World
    - Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo (mixed with African Penguins)
    - Nanning Zoo
    - Qinhuangdao Wildlife Zoo: four arrived August 2010
    - Shanghai Ocean Aquarium
    - Shenzhen Wild Animal Safari Park: ten arrived April 2017
    Japan:
    - Himeji City Zoo
    - Ichihara Elephant Kingdom
    - Ikeda Zoo
    - Ishikawa Zoo
    - Izu Mitsu Sea Paradise
    - Joetsu Municipal Aquarium
    - Kamogawa Sea World
    - Kofu City Yoki Zoo
    - Nagasaki Penguin Aquarium
    - Notojima Aquarium
    - Shima Marineland
    - Shinagawa Aquarium
    - Suma Aqualife Park
    - Sumida Aquarium
    - Teradomari Aquarium
    - Umitamago Aquarium
    - Utsunomiya Zoo
    - Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradise

    EUROPE:
    Germany:
    - Augsburg Zoo
    - Karlsruhe Zoo
    - Wilhelmshaven Aquarium
    Italy:
    - Aquarium of Genoa
    - Tropicarium Park
    Portugal:
    - Lisbon Oceanarium
    Spain:
    - Acuario de Gijon
    - Faunia Madrid
    - Selwo Marina Delfinarium
    United Kingdom:
    - Blackpool Zoo

    SOUTH AMERICA:
    Argentina:
    - Aquarium Mar del Plata
    - Buenos Aires Zoo
    - Mundo Marino
    - Temaiken Bioparc
    Brazil:
    - Acqua Mundo
    - Bauru Zoo
    - Gramado Zoo
    - Municipal Aquarium of Santos
    - Natal Aquarium
    - Niteroi Zoo
    - Paranagua Aquarium
    - Rio Zoo
    - Sabina Aquarium
    - Sao Paulo Aquarium
    - Sao Paulo Zoo
    - Ubatuba Aquarium
    - Zoo Pomerode
    Chile:
    - Buin Zoo: rescue bird(s) (photo from Tripadvisor here with a Humboldt Penguin: https://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/05/d0/85/c4/parque-zoologico-buin.jpg).

    NORTH AMERICA:
    United States of America:
    - Aquarium of the Pacific
    - Blank Park Zoo
    - Bronx Zoo
    - Cincinnati Zoo
    - Jacksonville Zoo
    - John Ball Zoo
    - Point Defiance Zoo
    - Potter Park Zoo
    - San Francisco Zoo
    - SeaWorld San Diego
    - Shedd Aquarium
    - Zoo Boise
     
    Last edited: 7 Nov 2018
  4. aardvark250

    aardvark250 Well-Known Member

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    Location:
    HK
    Very impressive Chlidonias!

    Surely Japan! Just Nagasaki have nine species!
    BTW I can confirm Hong Kong have these three species.
     
  5. Hyak_II

    Hyak_II Well-Known Member

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    Location:
    Canada
    Just some corrections on the North American side of things, for Africans Marine Life at West Edmonton Mall holds a breeding group of 11.7 africans. Calgary should still have 0.2 southern rockhoppers. Unless there have been some major changes, there should also still be 4-5 holders of northern rockhoppers in the states as well.
     
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  6. Chlidonias

    Chlidonias Moderator Staff Member

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    Calgary should have both Southern and Northern Rockhoppers? I only found them having Northerns.
     
  7. jayjds2

    jayjds2 Well-Known Member

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    Location:
    Virginia, USA
    I missed a few here: Moody Gardens and Newport Aquarium also both keep this species.

    Thanks for putting together this list @Chlidonias, it is truly an admirable effort!

    Edit: @Hyak_II, which zoos in the US have northern rockhoppers? I’ve never heard of any having them.
     
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  8. Chlidonias

    Chlidonias Moderator Staff Member

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    I just found this article (from December 2016) which says that there are (at that time, at least) four holders in North America and eight in Europe. (Zootierliste currently lists six holders in Europe).

    Two of the North American ones would have been Montreal and Calgary.

    Wonderful success at the Biodôme: the birth of three northern rockhopper penguin chicks!
     
  9. Hyak_II

    Hyak_II Well-Known Member

    Joined:
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    Posts:
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    Location:
    Canada
    Yes, Calgary should still have both. They recently took over as studbook holder and SSP coordinator, however their population was only 3.2 at the time, 3.0 northern and 0.2 southern. AFAIK they haven't gotten or removed any birds yet.

    As for the other holders of Northern Rockhoppers, I honestly couldn't tell you off the top of my head. The population is rather small (hovering between 30 and 40) and consists mainly of older birds. I'll reach out to some colleagues I have in the penguin world and see if I can't get some leads for you over the weekend!

    And to add, Chinstraps are also housed at Seaworld Orlando. They have 20sum birds received from San Antonio within the past year or two.

    I've been working on and off with Africans for the past 3 years and trying to keep track of them within North America is hard enough, so I will second Jay and say this is a very admirable effort indeed! Especially with all the asian collections out there :confused:
     
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  10. Kakapo

    Kakapo Well-Known Member

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    Location:
    Zaragoza, Spain
    I knew that Faunia was the only European holder of Adelie's, but I was unaware of that my country have the biggest diversity of penguin species within European countries. It makes me a bit of proud :p
    What a shame that my most favourite species, the yellow-eyed, is not found outside its native range.
     
  11. Chlidonias

    Chlidonias Moderator Staff Member

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    I guess you just need to visit New Zealand then!
     
  12. PaleoMatt

    PaleoMatt Well-Known Member

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    Location:
    Cheshire, England
    Didn't London send their Rockhopper back to Whipsnade?
     
  13. vogelcommando

    vogelcommando Well-Known Member

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    Location:
    fijnaart, the netherlands
    Great job Chlidonias, must have taken a lot of time and searching !
    If it can be kept up-to-date this can because THE reference for penguin-keeping !
    Thanks !
     
  14. carlos55

    carlos55 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
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    Posts:
    408
    Location:
    mexico,d.f.
    Great work,estimado Chli.
    In Mexico, Acuario Veracruz has Humboldt penguins that came from Peru.Pingüinario
    The rescued king penguin at Buin zoo in Chile has passed away.Last year i only saw 2 humboldt penguins named Chili and Wili in a show at Buin zoo.The annoucer called them humboldt penguins.
    I think that Lincoln Park zoo in Chicago has african penguins.
     
    Last edited: 4 Feb 2018
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  15. birdsandbats

    birdsandbats Well-Known Member

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    Wisconsin
    Also kept by Timbavati Wildlife Park, Lincoln Park Zoo, and the Como Park Zoo.
     
    Last edited: 4 Feb 2018
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  16. devilfish

    devilfish Well-Known Member

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    Location:
    Dundee, Scotland (UK)
    Brilliant work, Chli! Penguin place sounds great :)
    Jurong haven't had any little blues in years.
    I actually believe that Osaka Kaiyukan's rockhoppers are Easterns, having seen them in October: [​IMG]
     
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  17. Chlidonias

    Chlidonias Moderator Staff Member

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    Apparently so. I just checked Zootierliste again (after googling about the bird) and London has been moved to Former Holdings since I made the list.
     
  18. Chlidonias

    Chlidonias Moderator Staff Member

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    Penguin Place is a rescue centre which is open for tours. They always have Yellow-eyed Penguins (it is at Dunedin where the colonies are), and occasionally get vagrants of other species. I haven't been there but I am reliably informed that they currently have individuals of both Erect-crested Penguin and Snares Crested Penguin (or at least very recently).

    The Little Blues at Jurong went off-display years ago (they weren't on display last time I was in Singapore), but I don't know if they have all died since then or if they still have some.

    And yes that Rockhopper in your photo is an Eastern.
     
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  19. CaliHans

    CaliHans Active Member

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    Location:
    Kaua'i, Hawai'i
    A few notes on rockhoppers. Those in China are all Southern Rockhoppers as far as aim aware.

    There is just three holders of Northern rockhoppers in North America. Moody Gardens keep both Northern (came from Biodome de Montreal) and Southern. Calgary does indeed hold Southern as well (two females arrived from SeaWorld Orlando in 2012).
     
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  20. Jurek7

    Jurek7 Well-Known Member

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    Impressive effort, Chlidonias!

    It would be interesting to know why Little Penguins died out outside Australia and New Zealand. Is there something special in their biology?
    It would be also interesting to know why Emperor Penguins are in only one collection in the USA and absent in Europe, although a number of places is East Asia keep and apparently breed them.