To complement the other lists of mammals, reptiles and amphibians, zooboy28 and Chlidonias have constructed as complete a list as possible of the exotic birds found in Australia. There are certainly a number of species missing, especially among the parrots and passerines, and possibly some listed species which are no longer in the country. If you know of species that are missing from the list, or can provide additional information to improve the listings, please comment on this thread. A previous discussion thread also details many of the species found in Australia, and this thread was partially based on the species mentioned within: Exotic Birds in Australia The list is arranged taxonomically, with comments on the status and history of certain species in captivity in Australia. Some of the species are found only in zoos, others never in zoos, but most could potentially be found in zoos here. The zoos where individual species are kept are listed only for the most rarely exhibited species. Last full update: January 2020 A note on importation of exotic birds to Australia: In 1949 a ban was introduced on importation of all birds and avian material (e.g. feathers) from all countries except New Zealand. The ban was extended to include New Zealand in 1971. The main aim of the ban was to try and prevent the introduction to Australia of exotic avian diseases. This is the primary reason for there being so few exotic “zoo” birds left in Australia (e.g. curassows, crowned pigeons, condors, flamingoes) because all have to have been sustained in the country by the zoos for the last sixty-odd years. In 1989, largely due to high levels of smuggling by private aviculturists, legislation was brought in to allow legal importation of birds once more, with the first import taking place in 1990. Reviews of the procedures however showed there to be a high risk of disease introduction (mostly due to an incomplete knowledge of bird diseases and an inability then of testing properly for most of them); hence all importation was suspended indefinitely in 1995 and has never resumed. Unfortunately it seems zoos did not take advantage of this short window, instead the imports all being for private aviculturist and farming interests. Currently the only birds allowed to be imported into Australia are live domestic pigeons; the eggs of domestic chickens, domestic turkeys and domestic ducks; and live king and gentoo penguins from New Zealand (as of 2008, due to them coming from a contained facility in New Zealand to contained facilities in Australia). Exotic Birds in Australia: Struthioniformes: *Ostrich Struthio camelus - Commonly exhibited in zoos. Widely farmed in Australia. Also formerly (probably no longer) present as wild populations in South Australia. Rheiformes: *Greater Rhea Rhea americana - There is only one individual remaining in Australia, a female at Gorge Wildlife Park. Sphenisciformes: [For the purposes of this thread, imported penguin species (King and Gentoo) and vagrant penguin species (Fiordland Crested) will be treated as "exotic"] *King Penguin Aptenodytes patagonica - Breeding colonies at Sea World Gold Coast, Sydney Aquarium and Melbourne Aquarium. All are descended from birds imported in several lots from 2008 onwards, from Kelly Tarlton's in New Zealand (all of which in turn are descended from 20 birds imported from San Antonio Sea World (USA) in 1994). *Gentoo Penguin Pygoscelis papua - Breeding colonies at Sea World Gold Coast, Sydney Aquarium and Melbourne Aquarium. All are descended from birds imported in several lots from 2008 onwards, from Kelly Tarlton's in New Zealand (all of which in turn are descended from 29 birds imported from Edinburgh Zoo (UK) in 1995). *Fiordland Penguin Eudyptes pachyrhynchus - Five birds (1.4) at Taronga Zoo and two birds (1.1) at Melbourne Zoo. For Taronga's birds, the male (Mr. Munro) was found beach-wrecked at Norah Head (NSW) in November 2006. A female (Moeraki), at Taronga since January 2017, was found injured at Freycinet (Tasmania) in 2016 and is blind in one eye. The second female (Gari) was found injured at Hokitika (NZ) in December 2014 and sent to Wellington Zoo where she remained until being sent to Taronga in May 2017. The third female (Roxy or Dusky Sound) was found injured at Denmark (Western Australia) in July 2017, and came to Taronga in October 2017. The fourth female arrived in 2019 and is named Piopiotahi but I don't know her origin yet. Formerly there were two other females at Taronga Zoo (Milford and Chalky), found beach-wrecked separately. Milford was found at Congo Beach (NSW) in 1994 and came to Taronga after a period at Mogo Zoo. Chalky was found on Kangaroo Island (SA) in 1995. Fertile eggs were laid but none hatched, and the two females had both died of old age by 2010. For Melbourne Zoo, two birds (named Edward and Kim) were found beach-wrecked separately on the Mornington Peninsula (Victoria) in July 2018. They were deemed unreleasable after recovery and retained at Melbourne Zoo where they were placed on display in December 2018. Anseriformes: *Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata - Relatively common in Australian aviculture. *North American Wood Duck Aix sponsa - Almost extinct in Australian aviculture. None in Australian zoos. *Mallard Anas platyrhynchus - Introduced in wild. *Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata - Common in captivity. *New Zealand Scaup Aythya novaeseelandiae - Present in private aviculture but very rare. In the zoos, only Gorge Wildlife Park keeps them (with five [2.3] bird as of January 2020). *Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea - Rare in Australia, found in few zoos (amongst ZAA zoos, only Darling Downs, Gorge, and Taronga currently keep them as of January 2020). *Paradise Shelduck Tadorna variegata - Extremely rare in private aviculture. In the zoos, only Gorge Wildlife Park keeps them (with one pair as of January 2020). *Egyptian Goose Alopochen aegyptiacus - Rare in Australian aviculture. In ZAA zoos (as of January 2020) they are kept at Gorge Wildlife Park, Halls Gap Zoo, Peel Zoo, and Taronga Zoo. *Canada Goose Branta canadensis - Small and highly-inbred captive population, mainly in private aviculture. Amongst zoos (as of January 2020), kept at Gorge Wildlife Park, Halls Gap Zoo, and the Hunter Valley Zoo. Also an occasional wild vagrant from NZ. *Mute Swan Cygnus olor - Small and inbred captive population. Halls Gap Zoo has one pair. There is also a small wild population at Northam (WA). Galliformes: *California Quail Callipepla californica - Introduced in wild (locally). Relatively common in aviculture. *Bobwhite Colinus virginianus - Relatively common in aviculture. *Chinese Painted Quail Coturnix chinensis - Very common in aviculture. The same species as the native King Quail, but stock in aviculture is largely derived from imported birds. *Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica - Common in aviculture. *Chukar Alectoris chukar - Relatively common in private aviculture. *Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus - Few true-breeding to wild phenotype. Most or all captive Australian birds have domestic genes. *Lady Amherst’s Pheasant Chrysolophus amherstiae - Common in aviculture, but many are hybrids with Golden Pheasant. *Golden Pheasant Chrysolophus pictus - Common in aviculture, but many are hybrids with Lady Amherst's Pheasant. *Reeves' Pheasant Syrmaticus reevesii - Uncommon in aviculture. *Kalij Pheasant Lophura leucomelanos - Reasonably abundant in aviculture. *Silver Pheasant Lophura nycthemera - Reasonably abundant in aviculture. *Swinhoe’s Pheasant Lophura swinhoii - Relatively uncommon in aviculture. *Siamese Fireback Pheasant Lophura diardi - Extremely rare in aviculture, and the remaining birds are highly inbred. None in Australian zoos. *Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus - Introduced in wild. Common in aviculture. *Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus - Introduced in wild (locally). Common in aviculture. *Green Peafowl Pavo muticus - Small and inbred population. They may still be kept at Gumbuya Park, but apparently no longer at Gorge Wildlife Park (?). *Helmeted (Domestic) Guineafowl Numida meleagris - Introduced in wild. Common in aviculture and farming. *Feral Turkey Meleagris gallopavo - Introduced in wild. Columbiformes: *Domestic Pigeon Columba livia *Nicobar Pigeon Caloenas nicobarica - Quite uncommon in zoos and private aviculture but population increasing. Descended from imports from New Guinea by Edward Hallstrom in the 1940s/50s. There are about 100 birds in Australian zoos, with the largest numbers being at Taronga Zoo (c.50 birds), Adelaide Zoo (c.20 birds) and Featherdale Wildlife Park (c.20 birds). *White-breasted Ground-dove Gallicolumba jobiensis - Found in few zoos but relatively common in private aviculture. Descended from imports from New Guinea by Edward Hallstrom in the 1950s. There are about 150 birds in Australian zoos, with the largest numbers being at Featherdale Wildlife Park (c.60 birds) and Gorge Wildlife Park (c.40 birds). There are also reasonable numbers at Adelaide Zoo and Taronga Zoo (c.20 birds each). *Luzon Bleeding-heart Dove Gallicolumba luzonica - Population in zoos increasing, relatively common in private aviculture. There are around fifty birds in Australian zoos. *Ruddy Ground-dove (Talpacoti Dove) Columbina talpacoti - Uncommon in zoos, relatively common in private aviculture. *Namaqua (Cape) Dove Oena capensis - Uncommon in zoos, common in private aviculture. *Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis - Introduced to the wild. Uncommon in zoos, common in private aviculture. *Senegal Dove Streptopelia senegalensis - Introduced to the wild. Uncommon in zoos, common in private aviculture. *Barbary Dove Streptopelia roseogrisea - Introduced to the wild. Uncommon in zoos, common in private aviculture. Cathartiformes: *Andean Condor Vultur gryphus - All the condors in Australia are descended from just one wild-caught pair imported by Taronga Zoo from South America in 1947 [not the pair imported to Taronga from Europe in 1935]. This pair produced only two young (in 1979) and these are the current (now retired) breeding pair. The original 1947 pair were sent to Adelaide Zoo in 1988; the female died in 2007 at Monarto, and the male earlier at Adelaide. The total number of birds in Australia is now only four. Taronga retains two female birds, and the breeding pair has been retired to a private facility in Sydney called Feathered Friends. There was previously also a male at Australia Zoo but he appears to be gone now (?). Psittaciformes: [As with the NZ Bird list, just a straight list of species. They range from very common (e.g. Indian Ringnecks) through to species where there are just one or two birds in the country (e.g. Hyacinth Macaws).] *Palm Cockatoo Probosciger aterrimus - Very rare in captivity in Australia, with captive birds probably including subspecies from both Australia and New Guinea. *Salmon-crested Cockatoo Cacatua moluccensis *Umbrella Cockatoo Cacatua alba *Goffin's Cockatoo Cacatua goffini *Yellow-bibbed Lory Lorius chlorocercus *White-naped Lory Lorius albidinucha *Chattering Lory Lorius garrulus *Black-capped Lory Lorius lory *Purple-naped Lory Lorius domicella *Blue-streaked Lory Eos reticulata *Black-winged Lory Eos cyanogenia *Red and Blue Lory Eos histrio *Dusky Lory Pseudeos fuscata *Black Lory Chalcopsitta atra *Yellow-streaked Lory Chalcopsitta scintillata *Cardinal Lory Chalcopsitta cardinalis *Green-naped Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus haematodus *Ornate Lorikeet Trichoglossus ornatus *Mindanao Lorikeet Trichoglossus johnstoniae *Red-flanked Lorikeet Charmosyna placentis *Goldie's Lorikeet Psitteuteles goldiei *Hyacinthine Macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus *Buffon's Macaw Ara ambiguus *Military Macaw Ara militaris *Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna *Green-winged Macaw Ara chloroptera *Scarlet Macaw Ara macao *Red-fronted Macaw Ara rubrogenys *Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severa *Illiger's Macaw Primolius maracana *Yellow-collared Macaw Primolius auricollis *Red-bellied Macaw Orthopsittaca manilata *Red-shouldered Macaw Diopsittaca nobilis *Blue-fronted Amazon Amazona aestiva *White-fronted Amazon Amazona albifrons *Orange-winged Amazon Amazona amazonica *Red-lored Amazon Amazona autumnalis *Lilac-crowned Amazon Amazona finschi *Yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala *Double Yellow-headed Amazon Amazona oratrix *Yellow-naped Amazon Amazona auropalliata *Green-cheeked Amazon Amazona viridigenalis *Yellow-faced Amazon Amazona xanthops *Red-spectacled Amazon Amazona petrei *Cuban Amazon Amazona leucocephala *Tucuman Amazon Amazona tucumana *Golden (Queen of Bavaria's) Conure Guaruba guarouba *Blue-crowned Conure Aratinga acuticaudata *Brown-throated Conure Aratinga pertinax *Dusky-headed Conure Aratinga weddellii *Golden-capped Conure Aratinga aurocapilla *Peach-fronted Conure Aratinga aurea *Sun Conure Aratinga solstitialis *Janday Conure Aratinga jandaya *Patagonian Conure Cyanoliseus patagonus *Nanday Conure Nandayus nenday *Monk (Quaker) Parakeet Myiopsitta monachus *Black-capped Conure Pyrrhura rupicola *Fiery-shouldered Conure Pyrrhura egregia *Grey-breasted Conure Pyrrhura griseipectus *Blue-throated Conure Pyrrhura cruentata *Green-cheeked Conure Pyrrhura molinae *Maroon-bellied Conure Pyrrhura frontalis *Maroon-tailed Conure Pyrrhura melanura *Rose-crowned Conure Pyrrhura rhodocephala *Painted Conure Pyrrhura picta *Crimson-bellied Conure Pyrrhura perlata *Pearly Conure Pyrrhura lepida *White-bellied Caique Pionites leucogaster *Black-headed Caique Pionites melanocephala *Hawk-headed Parrot Deroptyus accipitrinus *Barred (Lineolated) Parakeet Bolborhynchus lineola *Pacific Parrotlet Forpus coelestis *African Grey Parrot Psittacus erithacus erithacus *Timneh Grey Parrot Psittacus erithacus timneh *Jardine's Parrot Poicephalus gulielmi *Meyer's Parrot Poicephalus meyeri *Red-bellied Parrot Poicephalus rufiventris *Senegal Parrot Poicephalus senegalus *Masked Lovebird Agapornis personata *Peach-faced Lovebird Agapornis roseicollis *Nyassa Lovebird Agapornis lilianae *Fischer's Lovebird Agapornis fischeri *Black-cheeked Lovebird Agapornis nigrigenis *Moustached Parakeet Psittacula alexandri *Long-tailed Parakeet Psittacula longicauda *Malabar Parrot Psittacula columboides *Plum-headed Parakeet Psittacula cyanocephala *Grey-headed Parakeet Psittacula finschi *Derbyan Parakeet Psittacula derbiana *Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria *Indian Ring-necked Parakeet Psittacula krameri *Yellow-crowned Kakariki Cyanoramphus auriceps *Red-crowned Kakariki Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae *Eclectus Eclectus roratus - Exotic subspecies in Australia include roratus, vosmaeri, polychloros and solomonensis. Many hybrids between subspecies exist. Passeriformes: Pycnonotidae (Bulbuls): *Red-whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus - Introduced in wild. Sometimes kept in private aviculture. Only occasional in zoos. Taronga Zoo and Featherdale Wildlife Park keep them currently. Timaliidae (Babblers): *Pekin Robin Leiothrix lutea - Uncommon in aviculture. *Silver-eared Mesia Leiothrix argentauris - Rare in aviculture. Sturnidae (Starlings): *Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris - Introduced in wild. Not usually kept in aviculture. *Indian Mynah Acridotheres tristis - Introduced in wild. Sometimes kept in private aviculture. Turdidae (Thrushes): *Song Thrush Turdus philomelos - Introduced in wild. Sometimes kept in private aviculture. *Common Blackbird Turdus merula - Introduced in wild. Sometimes kept in private aviculture. *Oriental Magpie-robin Copsychus saularis - Very rare in aviculture. *White-rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus - Very rare in aviculture. Alaudidae (Larks): *Eurasian Skylark Alauda arvensis - Introduced in wild. Sometimes kept in private aviculture. Not normally seen in zoos, although Featherdale Wildlife Park used to keep them. Thraupidae (Tanagers): *Red-crested (Pileated) Finch Coryphospingus cucullatus *Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola *Red-crested Cardinal Paroaria coronata - Very rare in aviculture. *Cuban Finch Tiaris canora *Blue-black Grassquit (Jacarini Finch) Volatinia jacarina Estrildidae (Waxbills): *Red-throated Parrot-finch Erythrura psittacea *Bamboo Parrot-finch Erythrura hyperythra *Pin-tailed Parrot-finch Erythrura prasina *Peale's (Fiji) Parrot-finch Erythrura pealii *Tri-coloured Parrot-finch Erythrura tricolor *Common (St. Helena) Waxbill Estrilda astrild *Lavender Waxbill Estrilda caerulescens *Orange-cheeked Waxbill Estrilda melpoda *Black-rumped Waxbill Estrilda troglodytes *Orange-breasted Waxbill Amandava subflava *Red Avadavat (Strawberry Finch) Amandava amandava *Green Avadavat Amandava formosa - Very rare in aviculture. *Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu Uraeginthus bengalus *Blue-capped Cordon-bleu Uraeginthus cyanocephalus *Violet-eared Waxbill (Common Greandier) Uraeginthus granatinus *Purple Grenadier Uraeginthus ianthinogaster *African Firefinch Lagonosticta rubricata *Red-billed Firefinch Lagonosticta senegala *Melba Finch Pytilia melba *Red-faced (Yellow-winged) Pytilia Pytilia hypogrammica *Red-winged Pytilia Pytilia phoenicoptera *Dybowski's Twinspot Euschistospiza dybowskii *Peter's Twinspot Hypargos niveoguttatus *Green-backed Twinspot Mandingoa nitidula *Bengalese/Society Finch Lonchura domestica *Black-headed Munia Lonchura atricapilla *White-headed Munia Lonchura maja *Tri-coloured Mannikin Lonchura malacca *Javan Munia Lonchura leucogastroides *White-bellied Munia Lonchura leucogaster *Rufous-backed Mannikin Lonchura nigriceps *Nutmeg Mannikin Lonchura punctulata - Also introduced to the wild in Australia. *African Silverbill Lonchura cantans *Grey-headed Silverbill Lonchura griseicapilla *Java Sparrow Padda oryzivora *Cut-throat Finch Amadina fasciata *Red-headed (Aberdeen) Finch Amadina erythrocephala Viduidae (Whydahs): *Pin-tailed Whydah Vidua macroura Fringillidae (Finches): *European Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs *European Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis - Introduced in wild. Sometimes kept in private aviculture. *Common Greenfinch Carduelis chloris - Introduced in wild. Sometimes kept in private aviculture. *Himalayan Greenfinch Carduelis spinoides *Oriental Greenfinch Carduelis sinica *Lesser Redpoll Carduelis flammea *Linnet Carduelis cannabina *European Siskin Carduelis spinus *Black-headed Siskin Carduelis notata *Red Siskin Carduelis cucullata *Yellow-hooded Siskin Carduelis magellanica *Canary Serinus canaria *European Serin Serinus serinus *Grey Singing Finch (White-rumped Seedeater) Serinus leucopygius - Very rare in aviculture. *Green Singing Finch Serinus mozambicus *House Finch Haemorhous mexicanus *Purple Finch Haemorhous purpureus Emberizidae (Buntings): *Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella Ploceidae (Weavers): *Red (Grenadier) Bishop Euplectes orix *Orange Bishop Euplectes franciscanus *Napolean Weaver Euplectes afer *Red-shouldered Whydah Euplectes axillaris *Madagascar Red Fody Foudia madagascariensis *Comoros (Red-headed) Fody Foudia eminentissima *[Forest Fody Foudia omissa - Those sold as such in Australian aviculture are probably actually hybrids between the previous two Foudia spp.] Passeridae (Sparrows): *Golden Song Sparrow Passer luteus *Plain-backed Sparrow Passer flaveolus *Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus - Introduced in wild. Not usually kept in aviculture. *House Sparrow Passer domesticus - Introduced in wild. Not usually kept in aviculture.