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North American Asian Elephant Reproduction

Discussion in 'General Zoo Discussion' started by Elephant Enthusiast, 7 Dec 2017.

  1. Jaxton

    Jaxton Well-Known Member

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    But she hasn’t bred before. (I don’t think so) So the odds of her even conceiving are low.
     
  2. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    While I’m not in favour of transferring Lucy from the Edmonton Valley Zoo to African Lion Safari, I am in favour of relocating Lucy to a sanctuary for retirement and companionship. I understand that Lucy has a respiratory condition that precludes sending her elsewhere but a similar situation happened to Maggie, the former Alaska Zoo elephant. The Alaska Zoo was relecuant to give up Maggie but after she fell twice, Patrick Lampi, the Alaska Zoo Director, realized that Alaska is no place for an elephant. The decision was made to relocate Maggie to the Performing Animal Welfare Society. For a decade, Maggie has lived out her life in retirement and in the companionship of other African elephants. Ultimately, Lucy deserves the same life of retirement and companionship. If Lucy does survive the transfer to a sanctuary, she will benefit from that but if she does die during transfer, she’s going to die at the Edmonton Valley Zoo regardless. What is there to lose for Lucy?

    Lucy has never reproduced and at 43 years old, she is far past her prime. However, between October of 1986 and April of 1988, Lucy was transferred between the Edmonton Valley Zoo and the Calgary Zoo to breed with Bandara, the breeding bull at that time.
     
  3. Yi Qi

    Yi Qi Well-Known Member

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    Or we can just renovate her enclosure and bring a couple of other elephants and keep her company until she dies.
     
  4. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    From a logistical standpoint, it wouldn't make sense to renovate the enclosure and acquire additional elephants when the Edmonton Valley Zoo is ultimately going to phase out their elephant program. Logistically, why invest into a program that will eventually end.
     
  5. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    0.1 Rozana gave birth to a male calf on May 4, 2018 at the Albuquerque Zoo.
    It's a (big) BOY! — City of Albuquerque

    This is Rozana's third calf as well as Samson's third calf but only their second calf together.

    Even though I was hoping for a female calf so Rozana could grow her matriarchal herd, I'm glad the pregnancy and birth went smoothly.

    Congratulations to the Albuquerque Zoo for another successful birth and for contributing to the growth of the North American Asian elephant population.
     
    Last edited: 5 May 2018
  6. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    With the importation of Ongard, the future of Asian elephant reproduction in North America is looking a little brighter. Since Ongard is unrelated to any elephant in North America, his genetics are extremely valuable within the population. Hopefully in the coming years he will have the opportunity to contribute those genes through artificial insemination or natural reproduction.

    In other news, Spike has officially been introduced to the three females Kamala, Swarna, and Maharani. Spike and Maharani have shown interest in one another and that interest has resulted in mating. If Maharani conceives, the Smithsonian National Zoo could be expecting an elephant calf as early as March of 2020.
     
  7. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    The Houston Zoo has announced that 0.1 Tess is pregnant and is expecting in the summer of 2018.
    BIG announcement from Houston Zoo: Tess is pregnant! | khou.com

    With the publication of this news, North America will have the birth of three Asian elephants in 2018; Rozana (Albuquerque Zoo) who gave birth to a male calf named Thorn on May 4, Tess (Houston Zoo) who is expecting between June and August, and Asha (Oklahoma City Zoo) who is expecting in November.
     
    Last edited: 11 May 2018
  8. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    The purpose of this comment is to update and reiterate the proposed breeding pairs, to provide an explanation for the choosing of these breeding recommendations, and to reevaluate the importation of elephants from Europe.

    After reviewing the proposed breeding pairs, there are some recommendations that should be altered due to changes within the population or lack of probability. Because of these revisions, the proposed breeding pairs will now consist of 27 achievable breeding pairs and 1 undetermined breeding pair. Following each pair will be an explanation of why the match were recommended to breed and how the match will come together.

    The 27 achievable breeding pairs are:

    Billy (Los Angeles Zoo) & Rose Tu (Oregon Zoo)
    • Billy is genetically valuable and unrepresented within the population.
    • Rose Tu is genetically valuable despite some family relations.
    • Billy should be transferred from the Los Angeles Zoo to the Oregon Zoo to breed with Rose Tu.

    Groucho (Denver Zoo) & Rasha (Fort Worth Zoo)

    • Groucho is genetically valuable and has only produced offspring with Rasha.
    • Rasha is genetically valuable and has only produced offspring with Groucho.
    • Groucho should be transferred from the Denver Zoo to the Fort Worth Zoo to breed with Rasha.

    Spike (Smithsonian National Zoo) & Maharani (Smithsonian National Zoo)

    • Spike is genetically valuable and unrepresented within the population.
    • Maharani is considerably valuable despite some family relations.
    • Spike and Maharani have been successfully paired.

    Rex (Oklahoma City Zoo) & Natasha (African Lion Safari)

    • Rex is genetically valuable and has already produced offspring with Natasha.
    • Natasha is considerably valuable and has already produced offspring with Rex.
    • Rex should be transferred from the Oklahoma City Zoo to African Lion Safari to breed with Natasha.

    Sabu (Cincinnati Zoo) & Rozana (Albuquerque Zoo)

    • Sabu is genetically valuable and unrepresented within the population.
    • Rozana is genetically valuable despite some family relations.
    • Sabu should be transferred from the Cincinnati Zoo to the Albuquerque Zoo to breed with Rozana.

    Thai (Houston Zoo) & Tess (Houston Zoo)
    • Thai is genetically valuable and has already produced offspring with Tess.
    • Tess is genetically valuable and has already produced offspring with Thai.
    • Thai and Tess have been successfully paired.

    Bodhi (Denver Zoo) & Bluebonnet (Fort Worth Zoo)
    Beco (Columbus Zoo) & Belle (Fort Worth Zoo)

    • Bodhi and Beco are full brothers and are genetically valuable through their father Coco.
    • Bluebonnet and Belle are full sisters and are genetically valuable through both their parents.
    • Bodhi should be transferred from the Denver Zoo to the Fort Worth Zoo to breed with Bluebonnet.
    • Beco should be transferred from the Columbus Zoo to the Fort Worth Zoo to breed with Belle.

    Raja (Saint Louis Zoo) & Rani (Saint Louis Zoo)
    Raja (Saint Louis Zoo) & Kirina (Rosamond Gifford Zoo)
    Raja (Saint Louis Zoo) & Mali (Rosamond Gifford Zoo)

    • Raja is considerably valuable despite some family relations and has already produced offspring with Rani.
    • Rani, Kirina, and Mali are half sisters through their father Indy so breeding all three to a single bull would simplify family relations.
    • Raja should have primary residence at the Saint Louis Zoo to breed with Rani.
    • Raja should have secondary residence at the Dickerson Park Zoo to breed with Kirina and Mali while Kirina and Mali, along with their matriarchal herd members, should be transferred from the Rosamond Gifford Zoo to the Dickerson Park Zoo to breed with Raja.

    Sneezy (Tulsa Zoo) & Shanti (Houston Zoo)
    Sneezy (Tulsa Zoo) & Asha (Oklahoma City Zoo)
    Sneezy (Tulsa Zoo) & Chandra (Oklahoma City Zoo)

    • Sneezy is genetically valuable and unrepresented within the population.
    • Shanti, Asha, and Chandra are half sisters through their father Onyx so breeding all three to a single bull would simplify family relations.
    • Sneezy should have secondary residence at the Tulsa Zoo to breed with Shanti while Shanti, along with her matriarchal herd members, should be transferred from the Houston Zoo to the Tulsa Zoo to breed with Sneezy.
    • Sneezy should be transferred from the Tulsa Zoo to the Oklahoma City Zoo to breed with Asha and Chandra and have primary residence at the Oklahoma City Zoo.

    Samson (Oregon Zoo) & Angelica (Center for Elephant Conservation)
    Samson (Oregon Zoo) & Sara (Center for Elephant Conservation)
    Johnson (African Lion Safari) & Asha (Center for Elephant Conservation)
    Johnson (African Lion Safari) & April (Center for Elephant Conservation)
    Kandula (Oklahoma City Zoo) & Rudy (Columbus Zoo)
    Kandula (Oklahoma City Zoo) & Sundara (Columbus Zoo)

    • Samson, Johnson, and Kandula share the same father Calvin so breeding all three to females who are interrelated would simplify family relations.
    • Angelica, Sara, Asha, April, Rudy, and Sundara share the same father Charlie so breeding all six to males who are interrelated would simplify family relations.
    • Samson should be transferred from the Oregon Zoo to the Columbus Zoo to breed with Angelica and Sara while Angelica and Sara, along with their matriarchal herd members, should be transferred from the Center for Elephant Conservation to the Columbus Zoo to breed with Samson.
    • Johnson should be transferred from African Lion Safari to the Cincinnati Zoo to breed with Asha and April while Asha and April, along with their matriarchal herd members, should be transferred from the Center for Elephant Conservation to the Cincinnati Zoo to breed with Johnson.
    • Kandula should be transferred from the Oklahoma City Zoo to the Rosamond Gifford Zoo to breed with Rudy and Sundara while Rudy and Sundara, along with their matriarchal herd members, should be transferred from the Columbus Zoo to the Rosamond Gifford Zoo to breed with Kandula.

    Romeo (Fort Worth Zoo) & Bonnie (Center for Elephant Conservation)
    Romeo (Fort Worth Zoo) & Shirley (Center for Elephant Conservation)
    Romeo (Fort Worth Zoo) & Kelly Ann (Center for Elephant Conservation)

    • Romeo has already produced offspring with Shirley so breeding him to females who share the father Vance would simply family relations.
    • Bonnie, Shirley, and Kelly Ann are half sisters through their father Vance so breeding all three to a single bull would simplify family relations.
    • Romeo should be transferred from the Fort Worth Zoo to the Houston Zoo to breed with Bonnie and Shirley while Bonnie and Shirley, along with their matriarchal herd members, should be transferred from the Center for Elephant Conservation to the Houston Zoo to breed with Romeo.
    • In the best interest of Romeo and Kelly Ann, artificial insemination should be considered as Romeo should be transferred from from the Fort Worth Zoo to the Houston Zoo to breed with Shirley and Bonnie while Kelly Ann should be transferred from the Center for Elephant Conservation to the Rosamond Gifford Zoo to stay with her matriarchal herd members.

    Jake (African Lion Safari) & Mable (Center for Elephant Conservation)
    Jake (African Lion Safari) & Piper (Center for Elephant Conservation)

    • Jake is considerably valuable despite some family relations.
    • Mable and Piper are full sisters so breeding both to a single bull would simplify family relations.
    • Jake should be transferred from African Lion Safari to the Houston Zoo to breed with Mable and Piper while Mable And Piper, along with their matriarchal herd members, should be transferred from the Center for Elephant Conservation to the Houston Zoo to breed with Jake.

    Obert (Endangered Ark Foundation) & Opal (African Lion Safari)
    • Obert is genetically valuable despite some family relations.
    • Opal is considerably valuable despite some family relations.
    • Obert should be transferred from the Endangered Ark Foundation to African Lion Safari to breed with Opal.

    Ongard (Miami Zoo) & Tupelo (Houston Zoo)
    • Ongard is genetically valuable and unrepresented within the population.
    • Tupelo is genetically valuable despite some family relations.
    • Ongard should be transferred from the Miami Zoo to the Houston Zoo to breed with Tupelo.

    The 1 undetermined breeding pair is:

    Young European Bull (European Location) & Jade (Saint Louis Zoo)
    • Pairing Jade with a potential mate has become complex due to the passing of Kenzi. Because Jade and Kenzi were only four years apart in age, pairing both with a single male would have simplified breeding. With the recommendation to breed Raja and Rani, Jade and any female offspring produced by Raja and Rani will be more than a decade apart in age. Because of the circumstances, Jade should be paired with a European bull who is recommended for importation and the brother of that bull should breed with any female offspring produced by Raja and Rani.

    To reiterate, these breeding pairs are audacious but with such a small breeding population, bold measures must be taken to guarantee a viable population.

    After reviewing the recommendations made to import elephants from Europe, there are some recommendations that should be altered due to changes within the North American and European population. Because of these revisions, there are now 4 male elephants that would significantly contribute to the North American population.

    The 4 male elephants are:

    1.0 Ananda Yingthway (Radza x Htoo Yin Aye) 2008-02-25 (Maubeuge Zoo)
    1.0 Rajendra (Sang Raja x Tong Koon) 2011-04-08 (Cologne Zoo)
    1.0 Thuya (Radza x Htoo Yin Aye) 2013-07-15 (Dierenrijk)
    1.0 Kitai (Sang Raja x Tong Koon) 2017-06-08 (Cologne Zoo)

    The importation of these 4 male elephants could be a costly and risky endeavor but the outcome would bolster the genetic diversity of Asian elephants in North America. The following males were selected because of their younger age, relations through family lineage, and enhanced opportunity to breed in the North American population.

    Ultimately, the sustainability of the Asian elephant population in North America will be dictated by the collaboration of zoological institutions in North America and Europe and fundamentally the reproduction of the species.
     
  9. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    0.1 Tess gave birth to a female calf named Tilly on June 17, 2018 at the Houston Zoo.
    Baby Elephant Tilly, Born on Father’s Day - Houston Zoo

    This is Tess' third viable calf and Thai's fifth viable calf but only their second viable calf together.

    It's fantastic that the calf is female because she will help grow Tess' matriarchal herd and her valuable genetics will be a significant addition to the population.

    Congratulations to the Houston Zoo for another successful birth and for contributing to the reproduction of Asian elephants in North America.
     
    Jaxton likes this.
  10. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    The Columbus Zoo has announced that 0.1 Phoebe is pregnant and is expecting in December of 2018.
    Columbus Zoo Celebrates World Elephant Day with Pregnancy Announcement

    With the publication of this news, North America will have the birth of four Asian elephants in 2018; Rozana (Albuquerque Zoo) who gave birth to a male calf named Thorn on May 4, Tess (Houston Zoo) who gave birth to a female calf named Tilly on June 17, Asha (Oklahoma City Zoo) who is expecting in November, and Phoebe (Columbus Zoo) who is expecting in December.

    This is fantastic news as Phoebe has not produced a calf since the birth of Beco in March of 2009. With the announcement of her pregnancy, I would consider Phoebe to be a reproductively viable female and should continue to reproduce.

    I wholeheartedly believe that a breeding female should continue to reproduce depsite having an extended period of time between one calf and another. There are many instances where a breeding female has gone years between producing calves. Porntip (Taronga Western Plains Zoo) went 8 years between her son Pathi Harn and her daughter Kanlaya. Thong Dee (Taronga Western Plains Zoo) went 7 years between her son Luk Chai and her son Sabai. Pak Boon (Taronga Zoo) went 6 years between her daughter Tukta and her son Jai Dee. Phoebe (Columbus Zoo) will be going 9 years between her son Beco and her expectant calf. Ultimately, a reproductive hiatus could have a considerable effect on the reproductive viability of a breeding female but her fertility will dictate whether she can successfully carry a pregnancy to term.
     
    Coelacanth18 likes this.
  11. Hyak_II

    Hyak_II Well-Known Member

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    2018 is really going to be a bumper year for Asian elephants in North America. With two calves born already, and at least another six who are in mid to late stage pregnancy, this will be the best year Asians have had in North America for at least a decade!
     
  12. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    Two females, Asha and Phoebe, are known publicly to be pregnant but who are the other four?
     
  13. Hyak_II

    Hyak_II Well-Known Member

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    Ah and therein lies the most frustrating factor, for I am not at liberty to say. I guess you'll just have to wait and see ;)
     
  14. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    I was kind of expecting you wouldn't be able to publicly address such information. However, not knowing who the pregnant elephant(s) might be makes it that much more exciting.
     
  15. Hyak_II

    Hyak_II Well-Known Member

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    Well two have dropped! There are now two young calves born in August on display at African Lion Safari. A male named Onyx born 8.18 to mother Opal, and a female named Luna born 8.17 to mother Lily. Both where sired by Johnson.
     
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  16. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    This is Lilly's fifth calf (fourth viable calf) and Johnson's fifth calf (fifth viable calf) but only their second calf together.

    This is Opal's second calf (second viable calf) and Johnson's sixth (sixth viable calf) but only their second calf together.

    Congratulations to the African Lion Safari for more successful births and for contributing to the reproduction of Asian elephants in North America.

    With the publication of this news, North America will have the birth of SIX Asian elephants in 2018; Rozana (Albuquerque Zoo) who gave birth to a male calf named Thorn on May 4, Tess (Houston Zoo) who gave birth to a female calf named Tilly on June 17, Lilly (African Lion Safari) who gave birth to a female calf named Luna on August 17, Opal (African Lion Safari) who gave birth to a male calf named Onyx on August 18, Asha (Oklahoma City Zoo) who's expecting in November, and Phoebe (Columbus Zoo) who's expecting in December.
     
  17. Hyak_II

    Hyak_II Well-Known Member

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    And then there were three! Young Kairavi was born 10/9 to 23 year old mother Asha and 50 year old father Rex.

    This is the sixth surviving calf for Rex, second for Asha, and their second together.

    This is an excellent addition to the North American population, especially for OKC. After the brutal loss of young Malee in 2015, another female calf helps point Oklahoma in the right direction for the future. As long as they don't acquire any more geriatric, herpes riddled cows, the outlook for things is optimistic!
     
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  18. John Marchwick

    John Marchwick Well-Known Member

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  19. John Marchwick

    John Marchwick Well-Known Member

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  20. Sarus Crane

    Sarus Crane Well-Known Member

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    When I saw the Columbus news, its great and all but then I think of what happened to Lily and ya know.... it could happen to her too. :(