The recent BBC article about the Mangarahara cichlid that may soon be extinct got me thinking (2 males in London Zoo, 1 male in Berlin Aquarium; likely extinct in the wild, though one can hope for a rediscovery like Ptychochromoides itasy.) Many fish are rapidly heading towards extinction due to building of dams and the situation has only become worse since Harrison and Stiassny wrote the fish chapter in Extinctions in Near Time in 1999. All extinctions are tragic, but when it involves a truly unique lineage like the parrot pacu, Ossubtus xinguense it is arguably even worse. I know this species was in captivity, both privately and in public aquaria (Aqua Terra Zoo, Vienna) until 2010-11 at least. Does anyone know if: 1) Are there any parrot pacus, O. xinguense in captivity today? 2) Has it been bred in captivity? Numerous other species, especially rheophilic Loricariid catfish, will disappear when the Belo Monte Dam opens on the Xingu River in Brazil (more than the half a dozen species usually mentioned in the media), but to my knowledge the Ossubtus is the only without any close relatives elsewhere.