The breeding of marmosets and tamarins in captivity has indeed been improved through advancements in husbandry and scientific management , however, the reintroduction of species (with the exception of the famous golden lion tamarin) is still far from being improved. For example, in Sao Paulo state the black lion tamarin is reduced to tiny fragmented meta populations in small tracts of Atlantic rainforest and the largest population in Morro do diabo national park. Projections with modelling strongly suggest that climate change will wipe out all but the population in Morro do diabo which will necessitate either taking these genetically valuable animals into captivity or translocation. Where can a species such as the black lion tamarin feasibly be reintroduced if there is no longer any wild habitat for it to go to or if the last tiny piece of natural habitat that does remain has passed well over carrying capacity ? Similarly another species of primate endemic to South-East Brazil , the buffy tufted marmoset is disapearing from the wild due to habitat loss and hybridization with the invasive common marmoset.Then consider a larger primate species , the Southern muriqui , also endemic to Sao Paulo state and only found in three collections in Brazil , with breeding only having occured in the superb Sorocaba zoo. It isn't just rampant habitat loss or risk of hybridization which is severely impacting these species either , its disease , particularly yellow fever which is massively on the rise in Brazil. Imagine if wild populations of these species are entirely wiped out by yellow fever , what will be left ? The answer is , only those that are kept in ex-situ captive conditions in zoos and private centres which will be the total extent of the species. In the case of these three species , which are all endemic to Sao Paulo state and Southern Brazil not to mention critically endangered (and vulnerable in the case of the buffy tufted marmoset) , how can space that could be available for ex-situ colonies of these species be justifiably dedicated instead to African, Asian or Madagascan primate species (even if they are endangered or in need of conservation attention) such as ring tailed lemur , chimpanzees , macaques or mandrill ? To my mind it simply can't , ideally we should be dedicating all our funding and space, energy and effort to conserving ex-situ native species. If zoos are arks , then our zoos must be arks for native species that in Sao Paulo state are disappearing in our immediate environment , anything else is a luxury ill afforded. European or North American zoological collections which are in better straits financially and that have no native primate species of their own can focus on exotic primates.