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Walrus currently in captivity

Discussion in 'General Zoo Discussion' started by johnstoni., 26 Aug 2011.

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  1. The Walrus

    The Walrus Member

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    Oh dear! My mistake. Thank you Elephant Entusiast. I'm sorry!
    You are absolutely right, Dyna seems to be the mother. I'm completely surprised.
    When I saw the walruses in April, Raisa looked definitely pregnant and i was not sure about Dyna.
    But I don't have confirmed information, if Raisa is really pregnant.
     
  2. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    It's with great sadness that 0.1 Samka passed away on June 28, 2018 at Aquarium du Québec.
    Samka the walrus dies at Quebec Aquarium | CBC News

    Not only is this is a major blow to the captive population of walruses in North America but also a significant loss to the reproduction of walruses in North America as Samka was only one of two walruses to successfully produce offspring in Canada and only one of few to successfully produce offspring in North America.

    My condolences to Aquarium du Québec during their time of heartbreak and loss.
     
  3. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    It's with great sadness that 1.0 Unnamed, born to 1.0 Odin and 0.1 Dyna on June 17, 2018, passed away on August 31, 2018 at Tierpark Hagenbeck.
    Hagenbeck.de: Das Walrossbaby ist gestorben

    This is significant loss to the captive population of walruses in the European Union as the last successful birth was the birth of 1.0 Thor (Odin x Dyna) in June of 2014. I will mention that the last successful birth was actually the birth of 0.1 Loki (Odin x Polosa) in June of 2015 but unfortunately Loki passed away in August of 2017.

    I'm very hopeful that more pregnancies will occur in the next few years from both Tierpark Hagenbeck and Dolfinarium Harderwijk. With regards to breeding, I have a few questions about the walruses at Tierpark Hagenbeck and Dolfinarium Harderwijk:

    • There were rumors that 0.1 Raisa was pregnant and expecting during the 2018 birthing season. Was Raisa ever pregnant and if so what was the result of the pregnancy?
    • Is 1.0 Odin being given the opportunity to breed with 0.1 Dyna, 0.1 Polosa, and 0.1 Raisa during the breeding season?
    • Is 1.0 Nikolai being given the opportunity to breed with 0.1 Rossita and 0.1 Olivia?
    • Are 1.0 Nikolai, 0.1 Rossita, and 0.1 Olga fertile?
     
    Last edited: 2 Sep 2018
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  4. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    It's been quite some time since the thread has been updated, so here's the overview:

    Transfers:

    1.0 Dozer was transferred from the Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium to SeaWorld San Diego on September ?, 2018.
    Dozer the Walrus Returns to Wild Arctic | SeaWorld San Diego Blog

    Births:

    0.1 Mina gave birth to a male calf on April ?, 2018 at Kamogawa Sea World. The sire is 1.0 Takku (Kamogawa Sea World)
    Walrus Network - Mina18

    0.1 Dyna gave birth to a male calf on June 17, 2018 at Tierpark Hagenbeck. The sire is 1.0 Odin (Tierpark Hagenbeck)
    Hagenbeck.de: Walrossbaby geboren

    Deaths:

    Sixteen year old 0.1 Buttercup passed away on ?, ?, 2018 at Marineland of Canada.
    Death of Buttercup | Twitter

    Twenty eight year old 1.0 Den passed away on April 20, 2018 at Kinosaki Marine World.
    Walrus Network - Den

    Thirteen year old 0.1 Samka passed away on June 28, 2018 at Aquarium du Québec.
    Headline-making walrus Samka dies at Quebec Aquarium | The Star

    Two month old 1.0 Unnamed passed away on August 31, 2018 at Tierpark Hagenbeck.
    Hagenbeck.de: Das Walrossbaby ist gestorben


    Unknown Inventory:

    Grandview Aquarium - Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
    Xiaomeisha Sea World - Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
    Chimelong Ocean Kingdom - Zhuhai, Guangdong, China
    Tianjin Haichang Polar Ocean World - Tianjin, Hebei, China
    Wuhan Haichang Polar Ocean World - Wuhan, Hubei, China
    Dalian Laohutan Ocean Park - Dalian, Liaoning, China
    Sun Asia Ocean World - Dalian, Liaoning, China
    Qujiang Polar Ocean Park - Xian, Shaanxi, China
    Qingdao Haichang Polar Ocean World - Qingdao, Shandong, China
    Penglai Ocean Aquarium - Yantai, Shandong, China
    Haichang Polar Ocean Park - Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    Safari World - Bangkok, Thailand
     
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  5. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    The captive walrus population as of October 2018:

    SeaWorld San Diego - San Diego, California, USA

    1.0 Dozer (Illiyak x Tumuk) 1993-06-21
    1.0 Mitik 2012-00-00
    0.1 Chouchou (Takku x Mikku) 2010-05-05

    Six Flags Discovery Kingdom - Vallejo, California, USA
    0.1 Uquq 1994-00-00

    SeaWorld Orlando - Orlando, Florida, USA
    1.0 Garfield 1982-00-00
    1.0 Aku 2017-00-00
    0.1 Slowpoke 1977-00-00
    0.1 Kaboodle (Obie x Kitkatska) 2003-05-01
    0.1 Ginger (Garfield x Kaboodle) 2017-06-03

    Indianapolis Zoo - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
    1.0 Pakak 2012-00-00
    0.1 Aurora 1995-00-00

    Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium - Tacoma, Washington, USA
    0.1 Basilla 1983-00-00
    0.1 Kulusiq 1994-00-00
    0.1 Joan 1995-00-00

    Vancouver Aquarium - Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    1.0 Balzak (Boris x Samka) 2016-05-23
    0.1 Lakina (Boris x Arnaliaq) 2016-05-07

    Marineland of Canada - Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada
    1.0 Apollo 2001-00-00
    1.0 Zeus 2001-00-00
    0.1 Smooshi 2004-00-00

    Aquarium du Québec - Quebec City, Québec, Canada
    1.0 Boris 2005-00-00
    0.1 Arnaliaq 2003-00-00

    Tierpark Hagenbeck - Hamburg, Germany
    1.0 Odin 1996-00-00
    1.0 Thor (Odin x Dyna) 2014-06-15
    0.1 Dyna 1996-00-00
    0.1 Polosa 1996-00-00
    0.1 Raisa (Igor x Rossita) 2004-06-22

    Dolfinarium Harderwijk - Harderwijk, Netherlands
    1.0 Nikolai (Igor x Olga) 1995-06-17
    0.1 Olga 1982-00-00
    0.1 Rossita 1995-00-00
    0.1 Olivia (Odin x Polosa) 2008-07-00

    Oceanogràfic Valencia - Valencia, Spain
    0.1 Ninotchka 2003-00-00
    0.1 Petrushka 2003-00-00
    0.1 Tanya 2003-00-00

    Moskvarium - Moscow, Central Federal District, Russia
    0.1 Klava 2011-00-00
    0.1 Eva 2011-00-00
    0.1 Lora 2011-00-00

    Yaroslavl Dolphinarium - Yaroslavl, Central Federal District, Russia
    1.0 Potap 2013-00-00
    0.1 Nastya 2013-00-00

    Primorsky Aquarium - Vladivostok, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia
    1.0 Misha 2010-00-00

    St. Petersburg Dolphinarium - St. Petersburg, Northwestern Federal District, Russia
    1.0 Svyatogor 2012-00-00
    0.1 Sonya 2002-00-00

    Center of Oceanography & Marine Biology - Novosibirsk, Siberian Federal District, Russia
    0.1 Tika 2010-00-00

    Anapa Dolphinarium - Anapa, Southern Federal District, Russia
    0.1 Nyusha 2007-00-00

    Gelendzhik Dolphinarium - Gelendzhik, Southern Federal District, Russia
    0.1 Antonina 2006-00-00

    Morskaya Zvezda Dolphinarium - Sochi, Southern Federal District, Russia
    1.0 Funtic 2013-00-00
    1.0 Benya 2013-00-00

    Aquatoria - Yalta, Southern Federal District, Russia
    1.0 Saltan 2004-00-00

    Udmurtia Zoo - Izhevsk, Volga Federal District, Russia
    1.0 Enurmin 2006-00-00
    0.1 Eva 2006-00-00
    0.1 Neseyka 2007-00-00

    Harbin Polarland - Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
    1.0 Yinou 2009-00-00
    0.1 Yiwa 2009-00-00

    Royal Ocean Park - Fushun, Liaoning, China
    0.1 Gelusha 2005-00-00
    0.1 Doris (Unknown x Gelusha) 2017-06-13

    Xixiakou Wildlife Park - Rongcheng, Shandong, China
    1.0 Anan 2004-00-00
    0.1 Pingping 2004-00-00

    Weihai Sea World - Weihai, Shandong, China
    1.0 Gavryusha 2008-00-00

    Ningbo Ocean World - Ningbo, Zhejiang, China
    0.1 Dudu 2009-00-00

    Ocean Park Hong Kong - Wong Chuk Hang, Hong Kong
    1.0 Rock (Takku x Mukku) 2003-06-01
    0.1 Miru 1999-00-00

    Minamichita Beach Land - Mihama, Aichi, Japan
    1.0 Kikku (Takku x Mukku) 1997-05-27
    0.1 Sakura 1998-00-00

    Kamogawa Sea World - Kamogawa, Chiba, Japan
    1.0 Takku 1983-00-00
    1.0 Riku (Takku x Mikku) 2013-04-23
    1.0 Unnamed (Takku x Mina) 2018-04-00
    0.1 Mina (Takku x Mikku) 2007-05-20
    0.1 Riru (Takku x Mikku) 2016-05-01

    Otaru Aquarium - Otaru, Hokkaido, Japan
    1.0 Uchio 1990-00-00
    0.1 Urya 1991-00-00
    0.1 Shizuku (Uchio x Urya) 2016-04-06

    Kinosaki Marine World - Toyooka, Hyōgo, Japan
    0.1 Guri 1997-00-00
    0.1 Sora 2005-00-00

    Hakkeijima Sea Paradise - Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
    1.0 Seita 1991-00-00
    0.1 Uchi 1991-00-00
    0.1 Piko 1995-00-00
    0.1 Moko 1995-00-00
    0.1 Ako 2002-00-00

    Ise Sea Paradise - Ise, Mie, Japan
    0.1 Himawari 2001-00-00
    0.1 Tanpopo 2003-00-00

    Toba Aquarium - Toba, Mie, Japan
    1.0 Pou 2005-00-00
    0.1 Kuu 2005-00-00
    0.1 Tsurara (Uchio x Urya) 2009-05-31

    Umitamago Aquarium - Ōita, Ōita, Japan
    0.1 Mii 2001-00-00
    0.1 Bubu 2001-00-00
    0.1 Izumi 2005-00-00

    Izu Mito Sea Paradise - Numazu, Shizuoka, Japan
    0.1 Snow 2003-00-00

    Aqua Planet Ilsan - Goyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea
    0.1 Balya 2005-00-00
    0.1 Meli 2010-00-00

    Theme Park Zoo - Goyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea
    0.1 Marus 2011-00-00

    Aqua Planet Jeju - Seogwipo, Jeju, South Korea
    1.0 Angli 2013-00-00

    Dolphin World - Hurghada, Egypt
    0.1 Lila 2009-00-00

    Dolphin Park - Kish, Hormozgan, Iran
    0.1 Donya 2009-00-00

    Istanbul Dolphinarium - Istanbul, Turkey
    1.0 Lolik 2004-00-00
    0.1 Sara 2004-00-00

    The Land of Legends Theme Park - Kadriye, Turkey
    0.1 Silva 2003-00-00
     
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  6. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    0.1 Uquq was transferred from Six Flags Discovery Kingdom to SeaWorld San Diego on November ?, 2018.
    SeaWorld welcomes a rescued walrus - ABC 10 News | Youtube

    This is phenomenal news! Since August 2017, Uquq has been living alone after her companion Siku passed away. However, her transfer to SeaWorld San Diego will enable Uquq to socialize with other walruses. In addition, since June 2015, Uquq hasn't been able to reproduce after her mate Sivuqaq passed away. However, her transfer to SeaWorld San Diego will enable Uquq to breed with Dozer, a reproductively viable bull. Ultimately, Uquq will significantly benefit from this transfer as SeaWorld San Diego will provide Uquq with improved social and reproductive opportunities.

    Because Uquq has been transferred to SeaWorld San Diego, the future of the walrus program at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom is uncertain. With only 14 walruses in 4 US facilities, the chances of Six Flags Discovery Kingdom acquiring walruses are quite low.
     
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  7. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    Last edited: 24 Nov 2018
  8. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    AMAZING NEWS!!!

    Aquarium du Québec has announced that 15 year old 0.1 Arnaliaq is pregnant and expecting in the Spring of 2019.
    Arnaliaq is Pregnant - Aquarium du Québec | Facebook

    This is phenomenal news for Aquarium du Québec as they're the only institution in Canada to successfully breed walruses. In addition, this will be the second calf produced by Arnaliaq and Boris which is very significant as captive breeding of the species has been challenging.


    The male calf born to 1.0 Takku and 0.1 Mina at Kamogawa Sea World was born on April 19, 2018. Unfortunately, the calf has yet to be named or the name has yet to be announced.
    Walrus Network - Mina18
     
  9. TheGerenuk

    TheGerenuk Well-Known Member

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    Thanks for all the walrus news! Glad to see a thread about the status of my personal favourite animals!
     
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  10. Walrus Network

    Walrus Network New Member

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    Hello everyone! I've just finished taking a census of the captive walrus population in 2018 and thought everyone here would like to see the results.

    To the best of my knowledge there are currently, at minimum, 124 walruses (42.65.16) living in captivity across the world --

    Canada - 7 total (4.3.0) across 3 facilities
    Aquarium du Quebec - 2 (1.1.0)
    Marineland Canada - 3 (2.1.0)
    Vancouver Aquarium - 2 (1.1.0)

    China - 43 total (17.10.16) across 20 facilities
    Chengdu Haichang Polar Ocean Park - 1 (1.0.0)
    Chimelong Ocean Kingdom - 8 (0.0.8)
    Dalian Laohutan Ocean Park - 4 (2.2.0)
    Dalian Sun Asia Ocean World - 2 (1.1.0)
    Grandview Aquarium - 3 (1.0.2)
    Hangzhou Changqiao Polar Ocean Park - 1 (0.1.0) (Thank you to @FunkyGibbon !)
    Harbin Polarland - 2 (1.1.0)
    Nanning Rongji Polar Ocean World - 1 (1.0.0)
    Ningbo Ocean World - 1 (0.1.0)
    Ocean Aquarium of Penglai - 2 (0.0.2)
    Ocean Park of Hong Kong - 2 (1.1.0)
    Qingdao Haichang Polar Ocean Park - 2 (0.0.2)
    Royal Ocean Park - 2 (1.1.0)
    Shendiao Mountain Wildlife Park - 2 (1.1.0)
    Shenzhen Xiaomeisha Sea World - 2 (1.0.1)
    Tianjin Haichang Polar Ocean World - 2 (2.0.0)
    Weihai Shenyou Sea World - 2 (1.1.0)
    Wuhan Haichang Polar Ocean World - 1 (1.0.0)
    Xian Huaxia Wenlv Ocean Park - 2 (1.0.1)
    Yantai Haichang Whale Shark Ocean Park - 1 (1.0.0)

    Egypt - 1 total (0.1.0) across 1 facility
    Dolphin World Egypt - 1 (0.1.0)

    Germany - 5 total (2.3.0) across 1 facility
    Tierpark Hagenbeck - 5 (2.3.0)

    Japan - 26 total (7.19.0) across 9 facilities
    Ise Sea Paradise - 2 (0.2.0)
    Izu-Mito Sea Paradise - 1 (0.1.0)
    Kamogawa Sea World - 5 (3.2.0)
    Kinosaki Marine World - 2 (0.2.0)
    Minamichita Beach Land - 2 (1.1.0)
    Oita Marine Palace Aquarium - 3 (0.3.0)
    Otaru Aquarium - 3 (1.2.0)
    Toba Aquarium - 3 (1.2.0)
    Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradise - 5 (1.4.0)

    Netherlands - 4 total (1.3.0) across 1 facility
    Dolfinarium Harderwijk - 4 (1.3.0)

    Russia - 16 total (5.11.0) across 9 facilities
    Aquatoria Yalta - 1 (1.0.0)
    Delfiniya - 1 (0.1.0)
    Gelendzhik Dolphinarium - 1 (0.1.0)
    Mosquarium - 3 (0.3.0)
    NEMO Anapa Dolphinarium - 1 (0.1.0)
    Primorsky Oceanarium - 1 (1.0.0)
    Saint Petersburg Dolohinarium - 3 (1.2.0)
    Yaroslavl Dolohinarium - 2 (1.1.0)
    Zoo Udmurtia - 3 (1.2.0)

    South Korea - 4 total (1.3.0) across 3 facilities
    Aqua Planet Ilsan - 2 (0.2.0)
    Aqua Planet Jeju - 1 (1.0.0)
    ThemePark ZooZoo - 1 (0.1.0)

    Spain - 3 total (0.3.0) across 1 facility
    Oceanografic Valencia - 3 (0.3.0)

    Turkey - 1 total (0.1.0) across 1 facility
    The Land of Legends Theme Park - 1 (0.1.0)

    United States - 14 total (5.9.0) across 4 facilities
    Indianapolis Zoo - 2 (1.1.0)
    Point Defiance Zoo - 3 (0.3.0)
    SeaWorld Orlando - 5 (2.3.0)
    SeaWorld San Diego - 4 (2.2.0)

    Please note that some of these numbers are minimums and not an exact count for certain facilities, particularly in China, although I've done my best to make it as accurate as possible. Please let me know if I missed anyone or made any mistakes!

    Edit: Also excluded from the total are 5 pups collected in 2018, currently at Srednyaya Bay in Russia.
     
    Last edited: 15 Dec 2018
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  11. FunkyGibbon

    FunkyGibbon Well-Known Member

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    0.0.1 at Hangzhou Haichang Polar Ocean World.
    Also, presumably the new Shanghai Haichang park has several.
     
    Last edited: 15 Dec 2018
  12. Walrus Network

    Walrus Network New Member

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    Thank you, I just searched Weibo and found pictures of the 0.0.1 (which as it turns out is a cow), adding now!
     
    Last edited: 15 Dec 2018
  13. Hyak_II

    Hyak_II Well-Known Member

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    @Walrus Network Ya'll better holla back at me soon now that you're back online!
     
  14. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    The male calf born to 1.0 Takku and 0.1 Mina on April 19, 2018 at Kamogawa Sea World has been named Rūku.
    Walrus Network - Rūku

    Seventeen year old 1.0 Zeus passed away on December 26, 2018 at Marineland of Canada.
    Marineland confirms another walrus at the park has died | CBC News

    The news report regarding Zeus' passing states that the most recent walrus death, prior to Zeus, was Sonja in May 2017. However, Buttercup, a sixteen year old female walrus, was, in actuality, the most recent walrus, prior to Zeus, to die at Marineland of Canada.

    Why has the death of Buttercup yet to be made public by Marineland of Canada or other media reports?
     
    Last edited: 25 Jan 2019
  15. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    SeaWorld Orlando has announced that 15 year old 0.1 Kaboodle is pregnant and expecting in the Spring of 2019.
    Baby walrus watch: SeaWorld Orlando anticipates birth this spring - Orlando Sentinel

    This is phenomenal news for SeaWorld Orlando as they're the only institution in the United States to be having success in the reproduction of walruses. In addition, this will be the second calf produced by Kaboodle and Garfield which is very significant as captive breeding of the species has been challenging.

    Thirteen year old 0.1 Izumi was transferred from the Umitamago Aquarium to the Toba Aquarium on February 8, 2019.
    ブリーディングローン(繁殖貸与契約)によりセイウチを1頭搬入しました | イベント・新着情報 | 鳥羽水族館公式ホームページ

    The transfer of Izumi is significant for the captive population of walruses in Japan as many institutions, excluding Kamogawa Sea World and Otaru Aquarium, have been unsuccessful or inactive in the reproduction of walruses. In addition, it'll enable Izumi to breed with Pou, the Toba Aquarium's resident bull.
     
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  16. SharkFinatic

    SharkFinatic Well-Known Member

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    Why has walrus breeding been so unsuccessful? I don't see how they're so much harder to breed than other pinnipeds.
     
  17. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    In captivity, walruses have been difficult to breed because most pregnancies have resulted in stillbirth or the calf didn't survive past infancy. In addition, hand rearing has only been successful in a few cases.

    Since 1971, 27 walrus calves have been born in North America. Of those 27 calves, 10 were stillborn, 9 died young, 3 survived to adulthood but have since passed, and 5 are currently living.

    Since 1995, 9 walrus calves have been born in Europe. Of those 9 calves, 1 was stillborn, 4 died young, and 4 are currently living.
     
  18. SharkFinatic

    SharkFinatic Well-Known Member

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    I'm just curious as to why other pinniped species in captivity have been more prolific, since I can't imagine their breeding habits to be that much different from walruses.
     
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  19. Elephant Enthusiast

    Elephant Enthusiast Well-Known Member

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    Very true. I'm not really sure why other pinnipeds, such as sea lions and seals, have been more successful in breeding than walruses. Perhaps walruses, like elephants, just don't breed well in captivity because of certain social or environmental factors.
     
  20. Hyak_II

    Hyak_II Well-Known Member

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    The reason for the lack of success with walruses is completely unrelated to the lack of success with elephants.

    Elephants breed INCREDIBLY well in captivity. Captive animals enter maturity much quicker than their wild counterparts, and a cow can easily have a 35+ year reproductive lifespan, producing calves every 3-5 years. With elephants, virtually all issues with reproduction come down to loses from EEHV, and poor management (read, poor calving intervals). Yes, back in the day animals were chronically developing premature arthritis and other issues from poor housing, however this is larger rectified now in western institutions.

    The issues with walrus are twofold. First off, and the biggest issue, is that males and females enter prime breeding condition at different times of year, especially when kept at more southern latitudes. Males are essentially non fertile outside of their 2-3 month breeding season, and cows only cycle for a short period of time, often out of sync of the males, so a bit of luck is needed for animals to sync up and both be fertile at the same time. With many high arctic and true antarctic species, their breeding cycles are simply not well adapted to southern latitudes. Animals such as walrus, belugas, emperor penguins, and leopard seals, and survive for years in captivity doing very well, however breeding is a constant struggle.

    The other issue is survival rates. Walrus are simply poorly adapted for southern living. They can have fatal consequences from accidentally ingesting something as small as a pinecone or some feathers, they consume a much larger portion of fish than they naturally would, tusk wear can easily create massive infections, and a host of other issues. Fortunately, we are getting better at counteracting these issues, however on a fundamental level, it is just part of a walruses basic biology not to truly thrive at southern latitudes.


    Also as for why other pinnipeds do so well? Simple, because they are not high specialized animals. The most common species in captivity are the California and Patagonian Sea Lions, Harbor, Grey, and Spotted Seals, and African Fur Seals. All of these species have fairly wide ranges, a variable and flexible diet, and are adapted to the stresses of non-arctic life. They are much better suited to captivity than walrus, and that is reflected in their breeding and survival rates.