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Antarctic Penguins

Discussion in 'General Zoo Discussion' started by Beastking04, 22 Sep 2015.

  1. Beastking04

    Beastking04 Well-Known Member

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    I have a few questions about Antarctic penguins in zoos. What temperatures do the penguins need? And can there be an outdoor Antarctic penguin exhibit?
     
  2. Mr. Zootycoon

    Mr. Zootycoon Well-Known Member

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    An outdoor exhibit for Antarctic penguins is possible, but they need a very dry
    climate to live in which is difficult in a temperate climate. If the zoo is located in a warmer, drier place I think it wil easily get too hot.

    I don't know any details about temperature.
     
  3. Batto

    Batto Well-Known Member

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    (Sub)antarctic penguin species are kept in various zoos at 0-10°C (32-50 °F) average air temperature.

    A few zoos (Edinburgh, Munich, Zürich) offer/have offered outdoor penguin walks/"parades" (often only during the winter time). In the past, different zoos worldwide have tried to keep subantarctic penguins outdoors. Most have abandoned this practice in favour of climate-controlled indoor exhibits to decrease the animal loss rate due to avian malaria and aspergillosis (among others).
     
  4. MikeG

    MikeG Well-Known Member

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    SeaWorld San Diego's enclosed exhibit for Antarctic penguins (including Emperors) is maintained at about minus 3 or 4 Celsius (25-degrees F), with a water temperature of 6 C (43 F.)
     
  5. Batto

    Batto Well-Known Member

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    That's why I wrote "various" and "average"; maintenance temperature can differ due to institutions and species kept within.
     
  6. Hyak_II

    Hyak_II Well-Known Member

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    Depends on species.

    Emperors and Adelies need to be at -1 Celsius or below. Any warmer and they start to go into heat stress. An outdoor for part of the year would be possible, however as soon as it goes above freezing they would need to e moved inside. Additionally, both of these species need highly specific light cycles to breed and molt. So the birds would need to be moved inside into artificial light before the sun starts setting. Considering there are only 5-6 facilities in the entire world holding emperors, all totally indoors, and all in moderate climates that never really get snow,it is not going to happen. Adelies are slightly more common, but still, never going to happen.

    For the Sub-Antarctic's (Gentoo's, Chinstraps, Kings) They can take warmer temps, generally up to 10 Celsius, however it varies from species to species. Chinstraps handle heat the worst, King probably the best. All captive chinstraps are currently kept indoors, however Kings and Gentoo's are regularly kept outdoors, however most facilities (especially in NA) move them inside once it starts to get above 10-12 degrees.

    Macaronis and Rockhoppers are in-between. Neither are Antarctic, however both can be housed in freezing temps or up into the 20's. They have a wide range of tolerance.
     
  7. Batto

    Batto Well-Known Member

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    Never say never, as it has already happened. Both Berlin Zoo and Tierpark Hellabrunn kept the emperor penguins (and in the case of Berlin, also a single Adelie penguin) they received from the "Schwabenland" Antarctic expedition of 1938/39 (as a present by Hermann Göring) at least temporarily outdoors, as confirmed by photos in the zoo guidebooks.
     
  8. Hyak_II

    Hyak_II Well-Known Member

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    It has already happened, so in the context of my post speaking of the future, I would still be correct ;)

    Although there is always the 0.001% change a facility would attempt an outdoor exhibit, given that all of the current holders are in areas that don't really freeze over much, I would be highly doubtful of it.

    Also FWIW, the german birds alternated between the two different facilities. Berlin in the winter and Hellabrunn in the summers. If I had to place my money on it, I would bet Hellabrunn had chilled facilities for the summers.
     
  9. Batto

    Batto Well-Known Member

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    Nope, as "never" includes the past, too. Maybe you should change your statement to "never again". ;)

    The only photo I've seen of the penguins in Munich showed them outdoors. Whether this was a one of a kind occasion or not, someone else might know. The cold winter of 1939 might have been of benefit for the outdoor husbandry at Berlin.
     
  10. Hyak_II

    Hyak_II Well-Known Member

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    You got me there!

    Also that's a good question. Knowing animal husbandry back then, I would not be surprised to see them housed outdoors in temperatures that might surprise those of us today.
     
  11. Jurek7

    Jurek7 Well-Known Member

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    Antractic penguins are very sensitive to microorganisms in the air on moderate latitudes, especially prone to lung disease aspergiliosis. Indoor exhibits are not just cooled but have filtered air.