This is a list of birds found in captivity in New Zealand. It derives from the earlier thread Exotic Birds in New Zealand which is still running as a discussion thread and in which you can also find lists of birds held in individual zoos. There are very few exotic "zoo" birds in New Zealand, i.e. those species requiring a specific zoo licence to hold, as opposed to species able to be held by any private person (such as any of the exotic parrots, finches or pheasants). Currently the only "zoo" birds left in the country are the Greater Flamingo flock at Auckland Zoo, the King and Gentoo Penguins at Kelly Tarltons, and Brolgas at several zoos. The reason for this is not just that zoos have historically been more interested in displaying and, more importantly, sustaining mammal species, but because of general import bans on birds. Due to New Zealand's position as a land of birds and a land free of many of the diseases found elsewhere, there have for a long time been strict laws around importing. For the last several decades of the twentieth century birds could only be imported to New Zealand from Australia. A ban on the export of most native Australian wildlife had been introduced in 1960 (except to zoos), but exotic species could be freely exported. There was a regular trade into New Zealand of Australian-bred foreign finches and parrots for the pet trade. There was, in relative contrast, very little in the way of imports for zoos and those species which were imported by zoos were not done so in adequate numbers and were, generally speaking, not treated as anything more than display items. Following reviews of the biosecurity issues surrounding private bird importations, and the discovery of Pacheco's Disease in the last legal importation, all live bird imports were stopped in 1997. That ban includes zoo imports. Currently the only birds which can be imported are domestic chickens and turkeys (as hatching eggs only), and Greater Flamingoes (as hatching eggs or as chicks hand-reared in quarantine). The following species lists are arranged in three separate blocks - native birds, then exotic birds, and lastly "former" exotic birds (i.e. those no longer found in the country). The lists are all arranged taxonomically. This is most of the species in captivity in New Zealand; there may still be a few parrots and finches missing from the exotic section. In general I haven't listed zoos or numbers for the species unless there are only a few specimens in the country. ................................................................................. LIST OF NATIVE BIRD SPECIES IN NEW ZEALAND ZOOS RATITES *North Island Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) This is the kiwi species on display in almost all the Kiwi Houses, and the main species in the Operation Nest Egg (ONE) programme. They are on display at Kiwi North (Whangarei), Auckland Zoo, Butterfly Creek, Rainbow Springs, Te Puia, National Aquarium (Napier), Otorohanga, Mt. Bruce, Nga Manu, Wellington Zoo, Orana Park, Willowbank, National Kiwi Centre, and Kiwi Birdlife Park (Queenstown). *Great Spotted Kiwi (Apteryx haastii) In ONE programme at Willowbank and West Coast Wildlife Centre -- may be seen in their brood rooms during the hatching season (by tour). Also one adult female at Otorohanga (varies between being on-display and off-display), and one pair at Willowbank (off-display). Formerly kept at Mt. Bruce as well. Of the recent (1970/80s) captive population from which breeding was attempted, the first individual was at Mt. Bruce in 1974, and the first breedings were at Mt. Bruce and Otorohanga in 1986.The female currently at Otorohanga is the last survivor of this population. I think both the adults at Willowbank are rescued birds from the wild. There were birds kept individually at prior times as well, such as one at Wellington Zoo from c.1916-1919. *Little Spotted Kiwi (Apteryx oweni) Now just one bird in captivity, an elderly male on display in a nocturnal house at Otorohanga. Formerly kept at Mt. Bruce as well. The first captive pair in New Zealand came to Mt. Bruce in 1969 and first bred there in 1972. They were first bred at Otorohanga in 1988. *Okarito Brown Kiwi (Apteryx rowi) In ONE programme at West Coast Wildlife Centre and Willowbank. Young chicks are always on display in the nocturnal house at the former before release, and may additionally be seen in their brood room during the hatching season (by tour). At Willowbank the chicks can only be seen in their brood room (by tour). *Southern Brown Kiwi (Apteryx australis) There are three distinct populations of Southern Brown Kiwi. The Haast Brown Kiwi are included in the ONE programme at Willowbank and the West Coast Wildlife Centre. Chicks may be seen in their brood rooms during the hatching season (by tour). The Fiordland Brown Kiwi and Stewart Island Brown Kiwi are not part of the ONE programme, and cannot currently be seen anywhere under captive conditions. The book Kiwis: a monograph of the family Apterygidae published in 1990 says (in the present tense) that Orana Park has one Stewart Island Brown Kiwi. PENGUINS As well as the species listed below, there are also King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and Gentoo Penguins (Pygoscelis papua) in captivity in New Zealand. While these species are native to New Zealand's subantarctic islands, the birds in captivity here were imported from captive stock in the USA and UK, and so I have placed them under the Exotic Bird list further down in the post. *Little Blue Penguin (Eudyptula minor) Little Blue Penguins have recently been split into two species based on genetic differences, the New Zealand Blue Penguin (E. minor) and the Australian Blue Penguin (E. novaehollandiae). Both species are found in New Zealand, so the captive population (which is entirely rescue birds, apart for a few unintended breedings) may include both. However they probably cannot be distinguished by external appearance. Little Blue Penguins are kept at several public collections. I think currently they are only at Auckland Zoo, National Aquarium (Napier), Brooklands Zoo, Wellington Zoo, Picton Eco-World, and the International Antarctic Centre (Christchurch). *White-flippered Penguin (Eudyptula minor “albosignata”) This is an easily-distinguishable form of Little Blue Penguin (larger with distinctive colouration) which has been variously treated as a separate subspecies or full species in the past. Different studies have supported different conclusions. Currently they are treated as not being genetically separable from standard Eudyptula minor. Several birds are kept at the International Antarctic Centre in Christchurch via rescued unreleasable birds. There was also one bird at Napier's National Aquarium (from the Napier Marineland after it closed), but I don't know if it is still there. *Yellow-eyed Penguin (Megapdyptes antipodes) Can be seen at Penguin Place (a rehabilitation centre at Dunedin open for tours). None are otherwise in public collections (i.e. zoos) and they are never likely to be in the future, however sometimes rescued individuals can be seen at Wellington Zoo's hospital viewing rooms when there are birds there for recovery (before release). In the 1980s this species was kept (and even produced infertile eggs) at the Napier Marineland. *Fiordland Crested Penguin (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus) Can sometimes be seen at Penguin Place (a rehabilitation centre at Dunedin open for tours). None are otherwise in public collections (i.e. zoos) in New Zealand and they are never likely to be in the future, however sometimes rescued individuals can be seen at Wellington Zoo's hospital viewing rooms when there are birds there for recovery (before release). *Erect-crested Penguin (Eudyptes sclateri) Rescued vagrants can sometimes be seen at Penguin Place (a rehabilitation centre at Dunedin open for tours). None otherwise in captivity in New Zealand, although the species was formerly kept at Wellington Zoo, with three birds noted as being present in February 1921 in the following article: Wellington Zoo - Wellington Zoo bird collection, 1921 *Snares Crested Penguin (Eudyptes robustus) Rescued vagrants can sometimes be seen at Penguin Place (a rehabilitation centre at Dunedin open for tours). **Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) - no longer in captivity On the list solely because a vagrant individual ended up at Wellington Zoo's hospital in June 2011, and was released in the Southern Ocean in September 2011 after recovery. While at the zoo he was often viewable through the windows of the hospital. Interestingly, both Auckland and Wellington Zoos had Emperor Penguins on display in the 1920s, although none are likely to have lived long. Two birds were brought to Wellington Zoo in 1921. Six birds were captured for Auckland Zoo in 1926 by a Norwegian whaling ship and, although all were still alive upon reaching Bluff (at the bottom of New Zealand), three had died before reaching the zoo. The remaining three were photographed for the following newspaper article (Papers Past | Newspapers | New Zealand Herald | 18 March 1926 | This page). One of those three birds had died within a week or so, and the other two probably soon after. Other penguin species collected from New Zealand's subantarctic islands have also been kept at Auckland and Wellington Zoos in the early- to mid-1900s, including: **King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at Wellington Zoo. There are newspaper records for two birds being kept in 1915, one bird arriving in 1916, two birds arriving in 1921, and one bird arriving in 1923. Probably none of these survived long, although one was notable for being given free-range at the zoo. I haven't seen any articles regarding Auckland Zoo, but I'd imagine they were kept there also. **Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome) - probably the Eastern form filholi - is mentioned in the Wellington Zoo guidebook for 1948, along with "Crested Penguins" collected by Admiral Byrd. There are various photos of a Crested Penguin species from 1939 newspapers as well. **Royal Penguin (Eudyptes schlegeli) is reported in several (identical) newspaper articles as arriving at Wellington Zoo in January 1921, such as the following one (Papers Past | Newspapers | New Zealand Herald | 29 January 1921 | This page). Some of the articles say "seven birds" and some say "several birds". I think these are actually the Erect-crested Penguins mentioned in an earlier link. The ship on which the birds arrived had been visiting the Campbell, Bounty and Antipodes Island groups - on the latter two of which Erect-crested Penguins breed - but not Macquarie Island on which Royal Penguins are found. TUBENOSES The Wellington Zoo hospital treats hundreds of injured albatrosses and petrels, including such rarities as Chatham Island Taiko (Pterodroma magentae). Although they are not display birds, there are often one or more species of tubenoses viewable through the windows of the hospital there. GANNETS *Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) Injured birds unable to be released may possibly be seen somewhere. There used to be some individuals at Napier's Marineland before it closed. I'm not aware of any on display currently. CORMORANTS All these species could potentially be seen in various collections via injured rescue birds, and there would also be a slim possibility of other native species. The only cormorant species which I know is on permanent display somewhere is Spotted Shag, with one bird at Auckland Zoo. Wellington Zoo had a Little Black Shag until recently. *Black Shag (Phalacrocorax carbo) *Pied Shag (Phalacrocorax varius) *Little Pied Shag (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos) *Little Black Shag (Phalacrocorax sulcirostris) *Spotted Shag (Stictocarbo punctatus) – currently one at Auckland Zoo. HERONS The herons listed below are most likely to be seen as rescue birds. Nankeen Night Herons (Nycticorax caledonicus) are a self-introduced native, and Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis) are yearly migrants, so both could also occur as rescues. Both these latter species were formerly present in New Zealand zoos from imported Australian stock (see the "former species" list at the bottom for details). *White Heron (= Great White Egret) (Egretta alba modesta) Small native population, only occasionally seen in zoos (as rescue birds). Willowbank had one until recently, but otherwise I'm not aware of any currently. *Reef Heron (Egretta sacra) Locally-common along shorelines, but rarely seen in captivity (rescue birds). I don't know of any currently. *White-faced Heron (Ardea novaehollandiae) Commonly seen, largely as rescue birds which cannot be released. *Australasian Brown Bittern (Botaurus poiciloptilus) Rarely seen. There were two females at Hamilton Zoo, both unreleasable birds which had been shot. One was obtained in 2015 and the other in 2016, but they don't seem to be there any longer. There was also one at Orana Park in the 1990s. SPOONBILLS and IBIS One species is a breeding native (Royal Spoonbill). Three species of ibis are vagrants from Australia, all of which were formerly present in New Zealand zoos as imported stock (see the "former species" list at the bottom for details). *Royal Spoonbill (Platalea regia) Sometimes seen in zoos, usually as injured rescue birds. I'm not aware of any currently any on display. WATERFOWL *Paradise Duck (Tadorna variegata) Common in the wild and often seen in captive collections. *Blue Duck (Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos) Currently Blue Duck are on display at Auckland Zoo, Esplanade Aviaries (Palmerston North), Hamilton Zoo, Mt. Bruce, Staglands, Nga Manu, Orana Park, Willowbank, and Kiwi Birdlife Park (Queenstown). Also at Peacock Springs (not open to the public). *New Zealand Scaup (Aythya novaeseelandiae) Common in the wild and often seen in captive collections. *Grey Teal (Anas gracilis) Common in the wild and sometimes seen in captive collections. *New Zealand Shoveller (Anas rhynchotis variegata) Common in the wild and often seen in captive collections. *Grey Duck (= Pacific Black Duck) (Anas superciliosa) The New Zealand population is now largely a hybrid swarm through interbreeding with Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). *Brown Teal (Anas chlorotis) Uncommon in the wild, found in small pockets of the North Island. Quite common in captivity. *Campbell Island Teal (Anas nesiotis) The only Campbell Island Teal left on display appear to be at Otorohanga, Willowbank, the Kiwi Birdlife Park (Queenstown), and the Queens Park aviaries (Invercargill). In 1975 on the species' rediscovery there were estimated to only be between 50 and 75 birds surviving in the wild. One male was captured in 1984 and transferred to Mt. Bruce, followed later the same year by one female and two more males. In 1990 three females and four males were captured to join the breeding programme, making a total of 6.4. (See http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/science-and-technical/TSRP07.pdf). Some internet sites say that the captive population was derived from four birds captured in 1987 which is incorrect. By 1993 the captive birds had dropped to 5.2. The first breeding wasn't achieved until 1994. Since then 159 captive-bred birds have been released onto Campbell Island following rat eradication. The breeding programme has now been halted and the remaining captive birds will die out. **Auckland Island Teal (Anas aucklandica) - no longer in captivity The captive population was founded on four pairs captured in 1984, intended to act as an analogue species for the breeding programme of Campbell Island Teal (A. nesiotis). Initially they were kept and bred at Mt. Bruce, and then spread to other facilities including Wellington Zoo and Otorohanga (http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/science-and-technical/TSRP07.pdf). I additionally saw them at Orana Park and Willowbank in the mid 1990s. When they were no longer needed for the programme the breeding was stopped, and there appear to be no A. aucklandica left in captivity now. BIRDS OF PREY There are only two native birds of prey (both below), although Black Kite (Milvus migrans) and Nankeen Kestrel (Falco cenchroides) are irregular vagrants from Australia. *Australasian Harrier (Circus approximans) At a few zoos, and as injured rescue birds. Also allowed to be kept under falconry licences. Very common in the wild. *New Zealand Falcon (Falco novaeseelandiae) At a few zoos, including Hamilton Zoo, Wingspan (Rotorua), Otorohanga, Willowbank, and the Kiwi Birdlife Park (Queenstown). Formerly at Wellington Zoo. A few people also keep them under licence for falconry. RAILS *Weka (Gallirallus australis) Common in zoos. There are four subspecies. *North Island Weka (G. a. greyi) is the most common in captivity although rare in the wild. Currently at Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Otorohanga, Owlcatraz, Staglands, and perhaps elsewhere. *Buff Weka (G. a .hectori) of the eastern South Island is extinct on the mainland, surviving only on the Chatham Islands to which it was introduced. There have been attempts to reintroduce it to the South Island. Genetics suggest it is actually just a colour form of the Western Weka. Currently there are birds at Willowbank and Kiwi Birdlife Park (Queenstown). *Western Weka (G. a. australis) of the western South Island is the only subspecies which is still common in the wild. It is apparently kept at Nga Manu (according to their signage - I'm not sure of its accuracy). *Stewart Island Weka (G. a. scotti) seems to be kept only at the Queens Park aviaries in Invercargill. *Banded Rail (Rallus philippensis assimilis) At only a few zoos (currently Hamilton Zoo, Otorohanga, and Wellington Zoo). Has been kept at Auckland Zoo and Orana Park in the past. *Pukeko (= Purple Swamphen) (Porphyrio porphyrio melanotos) Fairly common in public collections. *Takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri) At Auckland Zoo, Mt. Bruce, Willowbank and Te Anau; and also in fenced sanctuaries at Zealandia (aka Karori Wildlife Sanctuary) and Dunedin's Orokonui Eco-Sanctuary. All these birds are “retired” pairs no longer needed for the (non-zoo) breeding programmes. *Marsh Crake (Porzana pusilla) Unlikely but could turn up somewhere as a rehab bird. *Spotless Crake (Porzana tabuensis) Unlikely but could turn up somewhere as a rehab bird. *Australasian Coot (Fulica atra australis) Commonly seen wild in zoos, could also turn up captive as rehab birds. **Auckland Island Rail (Lewinia muelleri) - no longer in captivity Formerly treated as a subspecies of Lewin's Rail (Lewinia pectoralis). Only one individual has ever been kept in captivity, a female at Mt. Bruce. She was captured as a juvenile in 1966 and died in November 1975. The specimen is now at the Te Papa Museum: Loading... | Collections Online - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa See also Welcome | Notornis and Birds New Zealand SHOREBIRDS All shorebirds in New Zealand collections are either rescued (injured and unreleasable) birds or there as part of conservation programmes (usually for breeding, sometimes for advocacy purposes). There aren't any actual shorebird exhibits in New Zealand zoos as can be seen in overseas zoos, but random injured birds of any species could potentially turn up anywhere. *South Island Pied Oystercatcher (Haematopus finschi) Can be seen in a few places, including Otorohanga, Orana Park, and Queenstown's Kiwi Birdlife Park. *Variable Oystercatcher (Haematopus unicolor) Can be seen at Otorohanga, and possibly elsewhere. *Pied (White-headed) Stilt (Himantopus leucocephalus) Can be seen in several places at various times, including Auckland Zoo and Otorohanga. *Black Stilt (Himantopus novaezelandiae) Currently held at Twizel and Peacock Springs (the two breeding centres). Queenstown's Kiwi Birdlife Park usually has one or two birds for show. Mt. Bruce has kept them in the past for breeding, and Wellington Zoo also kept them until 2003. *Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica) Two rehab birds at Otorohanga. *Spur-winged Plover (Masked Lapwing) (Vanellus miles novaehollandiae) Common wild bird. It should be kept in several places. *New Zealand Shore Plover (Thinornis novaeseelandiae) Currently held as breeding birds at Peacock Springs and Mt. Bruce (off-display at both facilities). *New Zealand Dotterel (Charadrius obscurus) Currently one bird on display at Auckland Zoo. Formerly also kept and bred (off-display) at Mt. Bruce. GULLS and TERNS All three native gull species could be found as injured rescued birds here and there. Napier's National Aquarium has (had?) a single Black-billed Gull (Larus bulleri), but I don't know if the other species are on display anywhere. The other two species are the Black-backed or Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) and Red-billed Gull (Larus novaehollandiae scopulinus). Potentially terns could appear also, although that is much less likely: Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia), Black-fronted Tern (Chlidonias albostriatus) and White-fronted Tern (Sterna striata) are the common New Zealand species. *Black-billed Gull (Larus bulleri) There was one at the National Aquarium in Napier, but he may no longer be there. He was originally kept at the Napier Marineland, brought in as a rescue bird with only one wing in 1999, and moved to the Aquarium after the closure of the Marineland. PIGEONS *New Zealand Pigeon (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae) The only native pigeon species on mainland New Zealand. Commonly seen in zoos, mostly via rescue birds. **Chatham Islands Pigeon (Hemiphaga chathamensis) - none in captivity I have a newspaper article from 1995 which says this species was being kept at the time at Peacock Springs (Isaacs Wildlife Trust) in Christchurch, but I have no other information on it. PARROTS *Kea (Nestor notabilis) Common in zoos. Currently kept (at least) at Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Otorohanga, Staglands, Nga Manu, Wellington Zoo, Natureland, Orana Park, Willowbank, Kiwi Birdlife Park (Queenstown), Dunedin Botanic Gardens, and Queens Park (Invercargill). *North Island Kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) Fairly common in North Island zoos (they are no longer allowed to kept in the South Island, in case of escapes). Currently at Auckland Zoo, Esplanade Aviaries (Palmerston North), Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Otorohanga, Mt. Bruce, Staglands, Nga Manu, and Wellington Zoo. *South Island Kaka (Nestor meridionalis meridionalis) Uncommonly seen in zoos (and only in the South Island). Currently held at Natureland, Willowbank, Peacock Springs (not open to the public), Orana Park, Dunedin Botanic Gardens, Queens Park (Invercargill), and Te Anau Wildlife Centre. *Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) Occasionally one (the hand-reared Sirocco) is on view to the public for fund-raising purposes, usually at sanctuaries such as Zealandia or Orokonui, but on at least one occasion at Auckland Zoo. Hand-raised birds are sometimes shown to public before release. Occasionally birds under treatment may be seen at Wellington Zoo's hospital. In the 1960s an attempt at captive breeding was made at Mt. Bruce. Five birds were captured in February 1961 in Fiordland, all of which turned out to be males. Four died within months of capture, and the fifth survived for four years. Another was captured in 1967 and died the following year. *Yellow-crowned Kakariki (Cyanoramphus auriceps) Very common in public and private collections. *Red-crowned Kakariki (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) Very common in public and private collections. *Orange-fronted Kakariki (Cyanoramphus malherbi) In few facilities, currently on-display at Auckland Zoo, off-display at Orana Park, and also at Peacock Springs (which is not open to the public). Formerly they had been also held at Dunedin Botanic Gardens, Nga Manu, Mt. Bruce, and Te Anau Wildlife Centre. *Antipodes Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor) Currently kept at Auckland Zoo, Esplanade Aviaries (Palmerston North), Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Otorohanga, Mt. Bruce, Orana Park, Willowbank, Kiwi Birdlife Park (Queenstown), Queens Park (Invercargill) and Te Anau Wildlife Centre. Formerly have also been kept at Wellington Zoo and Dunedin Botanic Gardens. A small number are also still in private hands. There is some confusion over the origins of the captive population of the Antipodes Island Parakeet. The old DoC captive management plan of 1995 says that 11 birds were captured in 1984 and 1990 but, bizarrely, this is actually the data for Campbell Island Teal (Anas nesiotis). In fact, three pairs of each of the native parrots on the island (C. unicolor and C. hochstetteri - i.e. six birds of each species, or twelve in total) were captured during the University of Canterbury Antipodes Island Expedition of January to March 1969, and taken to Mt. Bruce. Two more individuals of both species were also collected in February 1970 and brought back to Mt. Bruce. The report of the expedition was written up in the Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand (1975, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 103-131) which can be read online. An introduced population was also on Stephens Island in Cook Strait for a short period (fifteen captive-bred birds released in 1986, which were mostly eaten by Tuatara due to their habit of nesting in burrows, with the last four birds being removed in 1988). There had also been birds brought alive to New Zealand previously, as some (reportedly 12 birds) were released in 1907 on Kapiti Island near Wellington after being collected earlier that year from Antipodes Island. They are said to have survived there for around twenty years before dying out. **Reischek's Kakariki (Cyanoramphus hochstetteri) - no longer in captivity Kept (and bred) at Mt. Bruce from 1969 until at least the mid-1990s, from birds collected in the wild (see C. unicolor above). At the time, this species was considered to be a subspecies of Red-crowned Kakariki (C. novaezelandiae). **Forbes' Parakeet (Cyanoramphus forbesi) - no longer in captivity Has been kept at Mt. Bruce in the past for captive breeding. It seems the captive population was started with six birds in the mid-1970s (around 1976). I know they were present in the years 1979 and 1983 (from sound-recordings available online, which were made at Mt. Bruce). At the time, this species was considered to be a subspecies of the Yellow-crowned Kakariki (C. auriceps). CUCKOOS *There are only two native species, the Long-tailed Cuckoo (Eudynamys taitensis) and the Shining Cuckoo (Chrysococcyx lucidus). Both are sometimes injured and end up in rescue centres. Potentially they could be seen in a zoo although this is unlikely. OWLS *Morepork (Ninox novaeseelandiae) Found in many zoos, often in Kiwi Houses. Those I know of currently are Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Wingspan (Rotorua), Mill Creek Bird Park, Otorohanga, Nga Manu, Owlcatraz, Wellington Zoo, Natureland, Orana Park, Willowbank, Kiwi Birdlife Park (Queenstown), and Te Anau Wildlife Centre. *Australian Barn Owl (Tyto alba delicatula) Currently just a few birds in captivity in New Zealand, all rescued and non-releasable, and all at the Wingspan Birds of Prey Centre in Rotorua. These are one female from 2009 and at least two birds (male and female) from 2016. All descend from a vagrant pair in Northland which has produced a small wild population. A chick was hatched at Wingspan in October 2017. Barn Owls were formerly kept in several zoos – including Auckland Zoo, Wellington Zoo, the (now-closed) Napier Kiwi House, Otorohanga Kiwi House, Orana Park, and Willowbank – via imported birds from Australia but I don't know if they ever bred here in captivity. The last ones disappeared in 2007 (one female at Otorohanga and two pairs at Wellington Zoo). KINGFISHERS *Sacred Kingfisher (Todiramphus sanctus) At a few zoos and rescue centres. The zoos I know of currently to hold them are Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Otorohanga, Orana Park, and Willowbank. WARBLERS, FLYCATCHERS, etc **Yellowhead (Mohoua ochrocephala) - no longer in captivity Kept at Orana Park and Peacock Springs in c.1995 (they successfully bred at Orana Park) but all died of aspergillosis. Birds caught in 2003 to start a new captive colony all died of avian malaria. No longer any in captivity. **Whitehead (Mohoua albicilla) - no longer in captivity Have been kept a number of times (e.g. at Otorohanga and Mt. Bruce) but there are no longer any in captivity. **New Zealand Robin (Petroica australis) - no longer in captivity None currently in captivity but I think they have been kept in the past (perhaps at Otorohanga and Mt. Bruce). WHITE-EYES *Silvereye (Zostrops lateralis) Common wild bird in New Zealand, but only very rarely in zoos. HONEYEATERS *Tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) Fairly often kept in zoos, mostly as rescue birds. *Bellbird (Anthornis melanura) Sometimes kept in zoos. STITCHBIRDS *Stitchbird (Notiomystis cincta) Currently only at Mt. Bruce. I'm not aware of them having been kept elsewhere. NEW ZEALAND WATTLEBIRDS *North Island Kokako (Callaeas cinerea wilsoni) Currently only at Mt. Bruce. Have formerly been held at Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, and Otorohanga. *North Island Saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater) Only at Auckland Zoo, which received ten wild-caught birds in September 2016. Prior to these the last in a zoo were at Orana Park in 2010. Has also been kept at Mt. Bruce and Otorohanga in the past. **South Island Saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus) - no longer in captivity Several pairs were kept and bred by a private aviculturist (under a permit) from the 1970s through the 1990s. Currently none in captivity. ................................................................................. LIST OF EXOTIC BIRD SPECIES IN NEW ZEALAND ZOOS (AND AVICULTURE) This list covers all the exotic bird species in New Zealand zoos and private aviculture (i.e. including introduced foreign species now found wild in the country, but no native or endemic species). As noted at the start of the thread, very few exotic bird species in New Zealand zoos are restricted to zoos - most are the subjects of private aviculture. However, because any of these species could be kept in zoos, I have listed them all. There are a few additional species which have introduced wild populations in New Zealand but would not normally be seen in zoos, and I've just listed these here at the start: *European Skylark (Alauda arvensis) *Dunnock (Hedge Sparrow) (Prunella modularis) *Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos) *European Blackbird (Turdus merula) *House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) *European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) RATITES *Ostrich (Struthio camelus) Common in zoos, in private holdings, and being farmed. *Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) Common in zoos, in private holdings, and being farmed. PENGUINS Technically these two species are native because they occur in New Zealand's subantarctic territories, but the original stock was imported captive-bred birds from the Northern Hemisphere. *King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) Only at Kelly Tarlton's SEA LIFE Aquarium. All are descended from 20 birds imported from San Antonio Sea World (USA) in 1994. Unrelated to the above birds, but of historical interest, King Penguins were kept at Wellington Zoo during the early 1900s, with newspaper records for 1915, 1916, 1921, and 1923. *Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua) Only at Kelly Tarlton's SEA LIFE Aquarium. All are descended from 29 birds imported from Edinburgh Zoo (UK) in 1995. FLAMINGOES *Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) There are 8.8 adults at Auckland Zoo, originally imported as chicks from Slimbridge (UK) in 2001. They bred for the first time in 2013 (with two chicks hatching in 2014, only one of which survived). Three chicks which hatched in 2017 were successfully reared. Two more chicks have been produced so far in 2018. Prior to the current stock, flamingoes are labelled on Auckland Zoo's maps for 1924, 1926, and 1950, and mentioned in the 1960 guidebook, after which they disappear. Wellington Zoo also kept flamingoes in at least the first half of the 1900s. WATERFOWL Most of these are very common birds in New Zealand, with the exception of Australian Shelduck and Mandarin Duck which are both uncommon. *Black Swan (Cygnus atratus) Common introduced wild bird in New Zealand. Common in captivity. *Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) Rare introduced wild bird in New Zealand, but common in captivity. *Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) Common introduced wild bird in New Zealand. Only sometimes seen in captivity. *Domestic (Greylag) Goose (Anser anser) Common domestic bird, also with feral populations. *Domestic (Chinese) Goose (Anser cygnoides) Common domestic bird. *Cape Barren Goose (Cereopsis novaehollandiae) Rare introduced wild bird in New Zealand (limited range), but common in captivity. *Australian Shelduck (Tadorna tadornoides) Uncommon in captivity. Also an occasional vagrant to New Zealand. *Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) Common introduced wild bird in New Zealand, although now largely a hybrid swarm through interbreeding with the native Grey Duck (Anas superciliosa). *Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata) Common domestic bird, also commonly seen as feral individuals. *Carolina Wood Duck (Aix sponsa) Common in captivity. Not found as wild populations. *Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata) Uncommon in captivity. Not found as wild populations. GAMEBIRDS *Domestic Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) *Helmeted (Domestic) Guineafowl (Numida meleagris) *Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus) *Blue (Indian) Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) Very common in aviculture in various mutations. Also found as feral populations. *Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) Common introduced species; common in aviculture in various mutations. *Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) Very common in aviculture. *Lady Amherst's Pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae) Very common in aviculture. *Reeves' Pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) Common in aviculture. *Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera) Very common in aviculture. *Swinhoe's Pheasant (Lophura swinhoii) Reasonably uncommon in aviculture. *Kalij Pheasant (Lophura leucomelanos) Almost extinct in New Zealand aviculture (none in zoos). *Himalayan Monal (Lophophorus impejanus) Rare in New Zealand aviculture. Currently kept at Hamilton and Wellington Zoos. Formerly also at Willowbank and Auckland Zoo. Just for interest's sake, the first to be imported into New Zealand were apparently a pair to Auckland Zoo in 1937 from Alipore Zoo in Calcutta (India): Papers Past | Newspapers | New Zealand Herald | 10 May 1937 | This page *Red-legged Partridge (Alectoris rufa) Failed introduced species, but common in aviculture. *Chukar (Alectoris chukar) Common in the wild in the Southern Alps, and also common in aviculture. *Australian Brown Quail (Coturnix ypsilophora) Common in wild, and also common in aviculture. *Chinese Painted Quail (Coturnix chinensis) Very common in aviculture. *Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) Very common in aviculture. *Californian Quail (Callipepla californica) Very common in wild, and also often kept in aviculture. *Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) Failed introduced species, but still common in aviculture. CRANES *Brolga (Grus rubicundus) Originally a pair imported to Auckland Zoo from Melbourne Zoo (Australia) in 1989. A second female was imported in 1992, also from Melbourne Zoo (I presume the first female had died). The male (hatched at Melbourne in 1982) and the second female (hatched at Melbourne in 1991) are still Auckland's breeding pair. All other Brolgas in the country were bred from this pair. Hamilton Zoo has a pair, while Brooklands Zoo and Wellington Zoo have one male each. (See further in this current thread for more discussion on Brolgas). PIGEONS *Domestic Pigeon (Columba livia) *Barbary (Ring-necked) Dove (Streptopelia roseogrisea) Very common in avicuture, and also present as scattered feral populations. *Senegal (Laughing) Dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) Reasonably common in aviculture. *Spot-necked Dove (Streptopelia chinensis) Common in aviculture, and also common as wild birds in the North Island. *Emerald Dove (= Green-winged Pigeon) (Chalcophaps indica) Still fairly common in avicuture. Recently this species has been split in two, with C. indica being found in south/southeast Asia and C. longirostris in Australasia. The New Zealand captive population is probably a hybrid one as birds have been imported from numerous sources in Australia and Asia through the 20th Century. Birds in current New Zealand aviculture have a mix of features of both species. *Wonga Pigeon (Leucosarcia melanoleuca) Now uncommon in New Zealand aviculture. *Common Bronzewing (Phaps chalcoptera) Not as common in aviculture as it once was. *Crested Pigeon (Ocyphaps lophotes) Still fairly common in aviculture. *Bleeding heart Pigeon (Gallicolumba luzonica) Uncommon in aviculture. *Talpacoti Dove (Ruddy Ground Dove) (Columbina talpacoti) Probably not many left in aviculture. *Cape (Namaqua) Dove (Oena capensis) Still fairly common in aviculture. *Diamond Dove (Geopelia cuneata) Very common in aviculture. *Peaceful Dove (Geopelia placida) Common in aviculture, but often sold as “zebra dove”. I'm not sure if there actually are any real Zebra Doves (Geopelia striata) in New Zealand. *Bar-shouldered Dove (Geopelia humeralis) Not sure if there are any left in New Zealand. *Brown Cuckoo-dove (Macropygia amboinensis phasianella) Not sure if there are any left in New Zealand. PARROTS This is just a straight list of the exotic parrot species available in New Zealand aviculture, although there will probably be some missing. Because of continued smuggling I'm not really sure how many species are actually in the country (e.g. since I left the private avicultural scene a number of new psittacids have mysteriously entered the trade, even though there hasn't been any legal importation for a long time). Very few of the following species are ever kept in zoos. However in aviculture some of the species are very common (to be seen in every pet shop) while at the other extreme some are only in single-figure numbers in New Zealand. Some may not even be found in the country any longer. Greater Sulphur-crested Cockatoos and Eastern Rosellas are both common birds in the wild in some parts of New Zealand. There is a small wild population of Galahs near Auckland. A population of about 200 Rainbow Lorikeets around Auckland was eliminated by DoC. Indian Ringnecks are being reported more often and may yet become established in the wild. Crimson Rosellas are no longer found as wild birds in New Zealand. *Yellow-streaked Lory (Chalcopsitta scintillata) *Red Lory (Eos bornea) *Blue-streaked Lory (Eos reticulata) *Violet-necked Lory (Eos squamata) *Black-capped Lory (Lorius lory) *Chattering Lory (Lorius garrulus) *Yellow-bibbed Lory (Lorius chlorocercus) *Rainbow Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus moluccanus) *Red-collared Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus rubritorquis) *Massena's Lorikeet (Coconut Lory) (Trichoglossus haematodus massena) *Green-naped Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus haematodus) *Edward's Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus fortis) *Olive-headed Lorikeet (Trichoglossus euteles) *Meyer's Lorikeet (Trichoglossus flavoviridis meyeri) *Scaly-breasted Lorikeet (Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus) *Musk Lorikeet (Glossopsitta concinna) *Little Lorikeet (Glossopsitta pusilla) – not sure if any left here *Purple-crowned Lorikeet (Glossopsitta porphyrocephala) – not sure if any left here *Goldie's Lorikeet (Psitteuteles goldiei) *Musschenbroek's lorikeet (Neopsittacus musschenbroekii) *Papuan Lorikeet (Charmosyna papou) *Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii) *Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus funereus) *White-tailed Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus latirostris or baudinii) – I'm not sure which (or both) are found in New Zealand *Gang-gang (Callocephalon fimbriatum) *Galah (Cacatua roseicapilla) *Greater Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) *Citron-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata) *Leadbeater's Cockatoo (= Major Mitchell's or Pink Cockatoo) (Cacatua leadbeateri) *Moluccan Cockatoo (= Salmon-crested Cockatoo) (Cacatua moluccensis) *Umbrella Cockatoo (= White Cockatoo) (Cacatua alba) *Goffin's Cockatoo (Cacatua goffiniana) *Long-billed Corella (Cacatua tenuirostris) *Little Corella (Cacatua sanguinea) *Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) *Eclectus (various subspecies) (Eclectus roratus) *Australian King Parrot (Alisterus scapularis) *Australian Crimson-wing (Aprosmictus erythropterus) *Superb Parrot (= Barraband) (Polytelis swainsonii) *Rock Pebbler (= Regent Parrot) (Polytelis anthopeplus) *Princess Parrot (Polytelis alexandrae) *Port Lincoln Parrot (Barnardius zonarius zonarius) *Twenty-eight Parrot (Barnardius zonarius semitorquatus) *Cloncurry Parrot (Barnardius zonarius macgillivrayi) *Mallee Ringneck (Barnardius zonarius barnardi) *Western Rosella (= Stanley Rosella) ([Platycercus icterotis) *Crimson Rosella (Platycercus elegans) *Yellow Rosella (Platycercus (elegans) flaveolus) *Adelaide Rosella (”Platycercus adelaidae”) *Green Rosella (Platycercus caledonicus) *Brown Rosella (= Northern Rosella) (Platycercus venustus) *Pale-headed Rosella (Platycercus adscitus) *Eastern Rosella (Platycercus eximius) *Blue-bonnet (Northiella haematogaster) *Red-rumped Parrot (Psephotus haematonotus) *Mulga Parrot (= Many-coloured Parakeet) (Psephotus varius) *Hooded Parrot (Psephotus dissimilis) *Bourke's Parrot (Neopsephotus bourkii) *Turquoisine (Neophema pulchella) *Elegant Parrot (Neophema elegans) *Blue-winged Parrot (Neophema chrysostoma) *Scarlet-chested Parrot (= Splendid Parakeet) (Neophema splendida) *Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) *Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor) – not sure if there's any of these left *Red-capped Parrot (= Pileated Parrot) (Purpureicephalus spurius) *African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) *Timneh Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus timneh) *Senegal Parrot (Poicephalus sengalus) *Meyer's Parrot (Poicephalus meyeri) *Peach-faced Lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) *Nyassa Lovebird (Agapornis lilianae) *Masked Lovebird (Agapornis personatus) *Fischer's Lovebird (Agapornis fischeri) *Indian Ringneck (Psittacula krameri manillensis) *Alexandrine (Psittacula eupatria) *Moustached Parrot (Psittacula alexandri) *Slaty-headed Parrot (Psittacula himalayana) *Plum-headed Parrot (Psittacula cyanocephala) *Blossom-headed Parrot (Psittacula roseata) *Derbyan Parrot (Psittacula derbiana) *Malabar Parrot (Psittacula columboides) *Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) *Green-winged Macaw (Ara chloroptera) *Blue and Gold Macaw (Ara araurana) *Military Macaw (Ara militaris) *Hyacinth Macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) – probably none left in the country *Red-fronted Macaw (Ara rubrogenys) - one at Wellington Zoo, apparently the only one in the country; obtained from Customs as an illegal import in 1992. *Yellow-collared Macaw (Primolius (Ara) auricollis) *Red-bellied Macaw (Orthopsittaca (Ara) manilata) *Golden Conure (= Queen of Bavaria's Conure) (Guaruba guarouba) *Sun Conure (Aratinga solstitialis) *Jandaya Conure (Aratinga jandaya) *Nanday Conure (Aratinga nenday) *Blue-crowned Conure (Aratinga acuticauda) *Peach-fronted conure (Aratinga aurea) *White-eyed Conure (Aratinga leucophthalmus) *Mitred Conure (Aratinga mitrata) *Dusky-headed Conure (Aratinga weddellii) *Olive-throated Conure (Aratinga nana) *Orange-fronted Conure (Aratinga canicularis) *Brown-throated Conure (Aratinga pertinax) *Patagonian Conure (Cyanoliseus patagonus) *Monk (Quaker) Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) *Maroon-bellied Conure (Pyrrhura frontalis) *Green-cheeked Conure (Pyrrhura molinae) *Maroon-tailed Conure (Pyrrhura melanura) *Yellow-crowned Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala) *Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) *Yellow-naped Amazon (Amazona auropalliata) *Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) *Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica) *Mealy Amazon (Amazona farinosa) OWLS The only foreign species established in New Zealand, either wild or captive, is the Little Owl (below). Australian Barn Owls (Tyto alba delicatula) were formerly kept in New Zealand zoos from imported stock but these had all died out by the late 2000s - the current Barn Owls in captivity here are from a self-introduced population and are therefore included in the section for native birds earlier. *Little Owl (Athene noctua) A common introduced species in the wild (South Island only), found in some zoos. Currently they seem to be kept at Otorohanga, Owlcatraz, Nga Manu, Natureland, and Willowbank. KINGFISHERS *Common Kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguineae) An uncommon introduced species in the wild, found only in the north of the North Island, established from releases in 1866 onto Kawau Island. They used to be held frequently at zoos, especially Auckland (last held in 2012) and Wellington (last held around 2010), but are rarely seen now. I don't actually know of any zoo which has them right now. BUNTINGS, FINCHES, WAXBILLS Waxbills of many African and Asian species used to be freely imported into New Zealand from Australia and so few hobbyists actually bred them. When all bird imports were halted in the late 1990s the numbers in New Zealand fell quickly but most of those listed below are probably still around. Some are rare, some very common. Only a few are generally seen in public collections. The following six species are all established as wild birds in New Zealand and are often kept in private aviculture. *Yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella) *Cirl Bunting (Emberiza cirlus) *European Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) *European Greenfinch (Carduelis chloris) *Redpoll (Carduelis flammea) *Common Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) The following species range from very common to very rare in private aviculture. Few of the larger zoos keep these sorts of birds, but smaller privately-run collections commonly have various species. I have found additional species on a New Zealand price list for 2011 and have added those to the list but I have put a double asterix in front of their names because I honestly have trouble believing most of them are in the country. Some I do not believe are in Australia at all and some were probably not in Australia before imports to New Zealand were halted (all the private finch imports came from Australia) and some were definitely not in New Zealand before the imports were stopped. *Canary (Serinus canaria) **European Serin (Serinus serinus) *Green Singing Finch (Serinus mozambicus) *Grey Singing Finch (Serinus leucopygius) **European Siskin (Carduelis spinus) *Red Siskin (Carduelis cucullata) *Yellow Siskin (Carduelis yarrellii) **European Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) *Melba Finch (Pytilia melba) *Aurora Finch (Pytilia phoenicoptera) **Red-faced (Yellow-winged) Finch (Pytilia hypogrammica) *Red-billed Firefinch (Lagonosticta senegalensis) **Vinaceous Firefinch (Lagonosticta larvata vinacea) *Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu (Uraeginthus bengalus) *Blue-capped Cordon-bleu (Uraeginthus cyanocephalus) **Violet-eared Waxbill (Uraeginthus granatinus) *Common Waxbill (= St. Helena Finch) (Estrilda astrild) **Swee Waxbill (Estrilda melanotis) **Orange-cheeked Waxbill (Estrilda melpoda) **Lavender Waxbill (Estrilda caerulescens) **Black-cheeked Waxbill (Estrilda charmosyna) *Orange-breasted Waxbill (Amandava subflava) *Dybowski's Twinspot (Euschistospiza dybowskii) **Green Twinspot (Mandingoa nitidula) **Peter's Twinspot (Hypargos niveoguttatus) *Cut-throat Finch (Amadina fasciata) *Red-headed Finch (= Aberdeen Finch) (Amadina erythrocephala) **African Quailfinch (Ortygospiza fuscocrissa) *Red Avadavat (= Strawberry Finch) (Amandava amandava) *Green Avadavat (= Green Strawberry Finch) (Amandava formosa) *Red-browed Finch (Neochmia temporalis) *Crimson Finch (Neochmia phaeton) *Star Finch (Neochmia ruficauda) *Plum-headed Finch (Neochmia modesta) *Painted Finch (Emblema pictum) *Beautiful Firetail (Emblema bellum) *Red-eared Firetail (Emblema oculatum) *Diamond Finch (Stagonopleura guttata) *Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) *Double-barred Finch (= Owl Finch or Bicheno) (Taeniopygia bichenovi) *Masked Finch (Poephila personata) *Long-tailed Finch (Poephila acuticauda) *Black-throated Finch (Poephila cincta) *Pin-tailed Parrot-finch (Erythrura prasina) *Red-headed Parrot-finch (Erythrura psittacea) *Fiji Parrot-finch (Erythrura pealii) *Blue-faced Parrot-finch (Erythrura trichroa) **Bamboo Parrot-finch (Erythrura hyperythra) **Tri-coloured Parrot-finch (Erythrura tricolor) *Gouldian Finch (Erythrura gouldiae) *Bengalese Finch (Lonchura striata domestica) *African Silverbill (Lonchura cantans) *Java Sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora) *White-headed Munia (Lonchura maja) *White-bellied Munia (Lonchura leucogastra) *Tri-coloured Munia (Lonchura malacca) *Black-headed Munia (Lonchura atricapilla) *Scaly-breasted Munia (Nutmeg Finch) (Lonchura punctulata) *Chestnut-breasted Mannikin (Lonchura castaneothorax) *Pictorella Finch (Lonchura pectoralis) *Yellow-rumped Munia (Lonchura flaviprymna) *Rufous-backed Munia (Lonchura nigriceps) *Cuban Finch (Tiaris canora) *Jacarini Finch (Volatina jacarina) **Purple Finch (Carpodacus purpureus) *Golden Song Sparrow (Passer luteus) *Madagascar Fody (Foudia madagscariensis) *Saffron Finch (Sicalis flaveola) STARLINGS The only two species in New Zealand are the Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) and the Common Mynah (Acridotheres tristis). Only the latter is sometimes kept in zoos. *Common Mynah (Acridotheres tristis) Common introduced bird in New Zealand. Sometimes seen in zoos. AUSTRALIAN MAGPIES *Australian Magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen) Common introduced bird in New Zealand. Often seen in smaller zoos. CROWS *Rook (Corvus frugilegus) Uncommon introduced bird in New Zealand, occasionally seen in the smaller zoos. Willowbank has had a tame bird for many years. ................................................................................. LIST OF FORMER EXOTIC BIRD SPECIES IN NEW ZEALAND ZOOS This list of "former" exotic bird species in New Zealand zoos is for recording those which no longer occur in captivity in the country. However, I've left all the recent parrots and most of the waxbills in the "current" list for the sake of simplicity, even though the majority wouldn't be seen in zoos and at least some of them probably no longer occur in private aviculture any more. I've used a cut-off date of 1980 (roughly) because otherwise it gets too complicated. RATITES *Common Rhea (Rhea americana) Auckland and Wellington Zoos. There are specimens in Te Papa from Wellington Zoo from the 1960s and 1980s. The last individual in New Zealand was a male which died at Wellington in 2007. Interestingly, CITES records show that thirty Common Rhea were exported to China from NZ in 1998, although this could be an error in the data. PELICANS *Australian Pelican (Pelecanus conspicillatus) Auckland and Wellington kept pelicans (of probably various species) throughout their histories. The last one in a New Zealand zoo was a male at Wellington Zoo which died in April 2016, the last member of a group of four imported from Adelaide Zoo (Australia) in 1978. The last at Auckland Zoo would have been in the 1980s or possibly very early 1990s but I can't find any information other than that there is still a depiction of one on the 1987 zoo map (Auckland Zoo map, 1980s | ZooChat). The species is not listed in the 1992 stocklist for Auckland Zoo in the book "A Tiger By The Tail". Orana Park only ever had three birds, which I was told all died of mineral deficiencies in their diet. The last one was there into at least the mid- to late-1980s. I think they may have been imported at around the same time as Wellington's and for the same reason (droughts in South Australia were resulting in wild pelicans abandoning their nests). Peacock Springs in Christchurch also had some until the early 1980s. I don't know how many, but I was told at the time that they had been killed by the male Mute Swans. HERONS *Nankeen Night Heron (Nycticorax caledonicus) The former captive stock was from Australian imports. They were kept at Wellington Zoo into at least the 1980s and Auckland Zoo into at least the 1990s. In an attempt to establish a wild colony, Wellington Zoo released three banded birds in 1982; the birds dispersed individually and were later seen singly at Golden Bay (South Island, 1983), Lower Hutt (near Wellington, 1984), and Warkworth (near Auckland, 1984). The (now-closed) Napier Kiwi House also kept them in the 1990s, and Willowbank had them into the early 2000s. There is a small wild population near Wellington (self-introduced from Australia) so potentially rescue birds could turn up in a zoo. *Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) There were formerly a lot of Cattle Egrets at Wellington Zoo in the 1980s at least, presumably via imported birds, but there are no longer any captive in New Zealand. However the species is a fairly common winter migrant from Australia, and so could potentially appear in zoos as injured rescue birds. The more recent zoo birds in New Zealand were most likely imported from Australia, but in earlier decades they were also coming from further afield, with newspaper records of Auckland Zoo importing them from places such as Singapore in 1936 and India in 1937. SPOONBILLS and IBIS All three ibis species are rare vagrants from Australia (and Glossy Ibis have recently started breeding in New Zealand), but the former captive birds were all imported. All three species lasted in New Zealand zoos until the 2000s. *Straw-necked Ibis (Threskiornis spinicollis) At Auckland and Wellington Zoos. The last one in a New Zealand zoo was a male which died at Wellington Zoo in 2007. *Australian White Ibis (Threskiornis molucca) Used to be common in several zoos, including Auckland, Wellington, and Willowbank. The last one recorded for a New Zealand collection died at Auckland Zoo in 2007. *hybrid Straw-necked Ibis x Australian White Ibis Bred at Auckland Zoo at least once. I saw and photographed a hybrid in 1995 and I have also found photos of a bird on the internet which were taken in 2005 and 2006 (albeit labelled as a Straw-necked Ibis). I suspect the Auckland Zoo record for its last Australian White Ibis (died 2007) is actually this hybrid bird. *Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) I have seen these in the past at Wellington Zoo (late 1980s). There are no longer any captive in the country, although they do occur as wild vagrants (and rare breeders) from Australia. WATERFOWL There may still be some of the following around but I haven't seen any of them for a long time and it is unlikely any still exist in New Zealand collections (private or public). *Magpie Goose (Anseranas semipalmatus) The last ones in the country were a pair owned by Wellington Zoo (but on loan to a private holder) which appear to have died in 2007. *Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) The last one I saw was at Willowbank in the early 1980s. They are listed as being held at Wellington Zoo in the early/mid-1980s guidebook. The 1992 stocklist in the book "A Tiger By The Tail" notes them as still being in the Auckland Zoo collection at that time. The species had been kept in New Zealand for a long time, at least as far back as the 1920s. This 1931 newspaper article, for example, mentions twelve birds needing to be disposed of by Auckland Zoo, apparently due to overpopulation (Papers Past | Newspapers | Northern Advocate | 1 May 1931 | This page). They were even being exported to Australia in exchange for other animals, as in this 1934 article mentioning a pair being sent to Adelaide Zoo from Auckland (Papers Past | Newspapers | Evening Post | 6 January 1934 | This page). *Radjah Shelduck (Tadorna radjah) I saw these at Wellington Zoo in the late 1980s, and apparently they survived there until the early 2000s. *Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea) I last saw these at Wellington Zoo in the late 1980s. *Plumed Whistling Duck (Dendrocygna eytoni) I last saw these at Wellington Zoo in the late 1980s. The Auckland Zoo guidebook for 1960 also mentions this species (Auckland Zoo - Auckland Zoo guide book C. 1960). They are also an occasional vagrant to New Zealand. *Australian Wood Duck (Chenonetta jubata) I last saw these at Wellington Zoo in the late 1980s. The Auckland Zoo guidebook for 1960 also mentions this species (Auckland Zoo - Auckland Zoo guide book C. 1960). They are also an occasional vagrant to, and now breeding in, New Zealand. *White-eyed Duck (Aythya australis) I last saw these at Wellington Zoo in the late 1980s. They are also an occasional vagrant to New Zealand. *Chestnut Teal (Anas castanea) These used to be in the private sector but I haven't heard of any for years, so they may be gone. In zoos they were kept at least at Wellington Zoo (listed in their early/mid-1980s guidebook) and Auckland Zoo (the 1992 stocklist in the Auckland Zoo history book "A Tiger By The Tail" includes them). They are also an occasional vagrant to New Zealand. BIRDS OF PREY *Wedge-tailed Eagle (Aquila audax) At Auckland Zoo and Wellington Zoo in the 1980s and early 1990s. The last one (at Auckland Zoo) was exported to Singapore in 1992. MEGAPODES and CURASSOWS *Australian Brush Turkey (Alectura lathami) Used to be in various New Zealand zoos until at least the 1980s in some cases. Orana Park's first guidebooks include this species. Auckland had them until at least 1960 (Auckland Zoo - Auckland Zoo guide book C. 1960). Auckland also bred them in the past, as in this newspaper article from 1939 for example (Papers Past | Newspapers | New Zealand Herald | 24 October 1939 | This page). *Razor-billed Curassow (Mitu tuberosum) Noted in the Auckland Zoo guidebook for 1960 (Auckland Zoo - Auckland Zoo guide book C. 1960) and also in the 1979 guidebook. The last two birds at Auckland were both from Adelaide Zoo, one of which lived there from 1983 to 1998, and the other 1988 to 1991. There's a photo of one of them here from 1992: razor-billed curassow aviary | ZooChat GAMEBIRDS *Grey Partridge (Perdix perdix) A failed introduced species, unlikely there are any left in aviculture. *Green Peafowl (Pavo muticus) Kept at Wellington Zoo in the late 1980s/early 1990s, and at Auckland Zoo perhaps up to the start of the 2000s. They are noted as being present in the Auckland Zoo guidebook for 1960 (Auckland Zoo - Auckland Zoo guide book C. 1960), and the 1992 stocklist in the Auckland Zoo history book "A Tiger By The Tail" includes them also. There are no longer any in the country. PIGEONS *Spinifex Pigeon (Geophaps (Petrophassa) plumifera) At Wellington Zoo in the 1970s at least (Te Papa museum has a specimen donated by the Wellington City Council in 1971). May have still been in the country in the 1980s. *Brush Bronzewing (Phaps elegans) Mentioned in the 1979 guidebook for Auckland Zoo. *Nicobar Pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica) At Wellington Zoo into at least the early 1990s (I saw them there in the late 1980s). Te Papa museum has specimens from 1944 and 1973 donated by the Wellington City Council. Also noted in the Auckland Zoo guidebook for 1960 (Auckland Zoo - Auckland Zoo guide book C. 1960) but not present by 1992 as of that year's stocklist recorded in the Auckland Zoo history book "A Tiger By The Tail". *Torresian Imperial Pigeon (Ducula spilorrhoa) At Auckland Zoo until 2009. Listed as being present at Wellington Zoo in their early/mid-1980s guidebook but I don't recall seeing them there at that time. FROGMOUTHS *Tawny Frogmouth (Podargus strigoides) The last in the country was a male at Wellington Zoo, hatched in December 1983 and (I think) dying in 2016 at the age of 32. The parent birds were both imported from Melbourne Zoo in 1978. PITTAS *Noisy Pitta (Pitta versicolor) Kept and bred at Wellington Zoo but they had died out by the early 2000s. BULBULS *Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) Formerly found wild in the northern North Island but they were eliminated by the Wildlife Department by 1955. I have heard it rumoured they are still found in private hands here but I think it is unlikely. There were confirmed reports of at least two wild birds in Auckland in 2006 and also more recently in 2013, but these are generally thought to have been the result of ship-assisted birds from the Pacific Islands rather than local cage escapes. It has been illegal to import them since the 1960s and they are classified as an unwanted organism in this country. *Red-whiskered Bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus) This species was listed in the Auckland Zoo history book "A Tiger By The Tail" as being in the collection in 1992. Presumably they would have been imported from Australia where there are wild populations. BABBLERS *Pekin Robin (Leiothrix lutea) I have no idea how widespread these were, but I saw one in a pet shop in the mid-1980s. At this time cage birds (mainly waxbills) could be imported into New Zealand from Australia. Pekin Robins still exist in Australian aviculture, but not in New Zealand. BUNTINGS, FINCHES, WAXBILLS Most of the species I have left in the "current" list because of general uncertainties over which species still exist in New Zealand aviculture, but the following species are almost certainly no longer in the country. *Red-crested Cardinal (Paroaria coronata) *Green (Yellow) Cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata) *Red Bishop (Euplectes orix) *Orange Bishop (Euplectes franciscana) *White-winged Whydah (Euplectes albonotatus) *Red-shouldered Whydah (Euplectes axillaris) *Pin-tailed Whydah (Vidua macroura) BOWERBIRDS *Satin Bowerbird (Ptilorhynchus violaceus) "Bowerbirds" were labelled on Auckland Zoo's 1979 map (Auckland Zoo map 1979 | ZooChat) and the guidebook itself (in which this map is pictured) specifically mentions Satin Bowerbirds, so presumably this species was still present into the 1980s. The 1992 stocklist in the Auckland Zoo history book "A Tiger By The Tail" does not include any bowerbirds. In the 1970s the zoo had two species, the Satin Bowerbird (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus) and the Regent Bowerbird (Sericulus chrysocephalus).