This is a list of birds found in captivity in New Zealand. It derives from the earlier thread Exotic Birds in New Zealand which is still running as a discussion thread and in which you can also find lists of birds held in individual zoos. There are very few exotic "zoo" birds in New Zealand, i.e. those species requiring a specific zoo licence to hold, as opposed to species able to be held by any private person (such as any of the exotic parrots, finches or pheasants). Currently the only "zoo" birds left in the country are the Greater Flamingo flock at Auckland Zoo, the King and Gentoo Penguins at Kelly Tarltons, and Brolgas at several zoos. The reason for this is not just that zoos have historically been more interested in displaying and, more importantly, sustaining mammal species, but because of general import bans on birds. Due to New Zealand's position as a land of birds and a land free of many of the diseases found elsewhere, there have for a long time been strict laws around importing. For the last several decades of the twentieth century birds could only be imported to New Zealand from Australia. A ban on the export of most native Australian wildlife had been introduced in 1960 (except to zoos), but exotic species could be freely exported. There was a regular trade into New Zealand of Australian-bred foreign finches and parrots for the pet trade. There was, in relative contrast, very little in the way of imports for zoos and those species which were imported by zoos were not done so in adequate numbers and were, generally speaking, not treated as anything more than display items. Following reviews of the biosecurity issues surrounding private bird importations, and the discovery of Pacheco's Disease in the last legal importation, all live bird imports were stopped in 1997. That ban includes zoo imports. Currently the only birds which can be imported are domestic chickens and turkeys (as hatching eggs only), and Greater Flamingoes (as hatching eggs or as chicks hand-reared in quarantine). The following species lists are arranged in three separate posts - native birds, then exotic birds, and lastly "former" exotic birds (i.e. those no longer found in the country). The lists are all arranged taxonomically. This is most of the species in captivity in New Zealand; there may still be a few parrots and finches missing from the exotic section. In general I haven't listed zoos or numbers for the species unless there are only a few specimens in the country. Last full update: January 2020 ................................................................................. LIST OF NATIVE BIRD SPECIES IN NEW ZEALAND ZOOS RATITES *North Island Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) This is the kiwi species on display in almost all the Kiwi Houses, and the main species in the Operation Nest Egg (ONE) programme. As of January 2020 they are on display at Kiwi North (Whangarei), Auckland Zoo, Butterfly Creek, Rainbow Springs, Te Puia, National Aquarium (Napier), Otorohanga, Mt. Bruce, Nga Manu, Wellington Zoo, Orana Park, Willowbank, National Kiwi Centre, and Kiwi Birdlife Park. *Great Spotted Kiwi (Apteryx haastii) In ONE programme at Willowbank and West Coast Wildlife Centre -- may be seen in their brood rooms during the hatching season (by tour). Also one adult male at Willowbank (off-display). Formerly kept at Mt. Bruce and Otorohanga as well. Of the recent (1970/80s) captive population from which breeding was attempted, the first individual was at Mt. Bruce in 1974, and the first breedings were at Mt. Bruce and Otorohanga in 1986.The last survivor of this population was a female at Otorohanga which seems to have died some time between 2017 and 2019. The bird currently at Willowbank is a rescued bird from the wild. There were birds kept individually at prior times as well, such as one at Wellington Zoo from c.1916-1919. *Okarito Brown Kiwi (Apteryx rowi) In ONE programme at West Coast Wildlife Centre and Willowbank. Young chicks are always on display in the nocturnal house at the former before release, and may additionally be seen in their brood room during the hatching season (by tour). At Willowbank the chicks can only be seen in their brood room (by tour). *Southern Brown Kiwi (Apteryx australis) There are three distinct populations of Southern Brown Kiwi. The Haast Brown Kiwi are included in the ONE programme at Willowbank and the West Coast Wildlife Centre. Chicks may be seen in their brood rooms during the hatching season (by tour). The Fiordland Brown Kiwi and Stewart Island Brown Kiwi are not part of the ONE programme, and cannot currently be seen anywhere under captive conditions. The book Kiwis: a monograph of the family Apterygidae published in 1990 says (in the present tense) that Orana Park had one Stewart Island Brown Kiwi. **Little Spotted Kiwi (Apteryx oweni) No longer any in captivity, although they were formerly kept and bred at both Mt Bruce and Otorohanga. The first captive pair in New Zealand came to Mt. Bruce in 1969 and first bred there in 1972. They were first bred at Otorohanga in 1988. The last captive bird was a male at Otorohanga, which seems to have died at some point between 2017 and 2019. PENGUINS As well as the species listed below, there are also King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and Gentoo Penguins (Pygoscelis papua) in captivity in New Zealand. While these species are native to New Zealand's subantarctic islands, the birds in captivity here were imported from captive stock in the USA and UK, and so I have placed them under the Exotic Bird list further down in the post. *Little Blue Penguin (Eudyptula minor) Little Blue Penguins have recently been split into two species based on genetic differences, the New Zealand Blue Penguin (E. minor) and the Australian Blue Penguin (E. novaehollandiae). Both species are found in New Zealand, so the captive population (which is entirely rescue birds, apart for a few unintended breedings) may include both. However they probably cannot be distinguished by external appearance. Little Blue Penguins are kept at several public collections. I think currently (January 2020) they are only at Auckland Zoo, National Aquarium (Napier), Wellington Zoo, Picton Eco-World, and the International Antarctic Centre (Christchurch). *White-flippered Penguin (Eudyptula minor “albosignata”) This is an easily-distinguishable form of Little Blue Penguin (larger with distinctive colouration) which has been variously treated as a separate subspecies or full species in the past. Different studies have supported different conclusions. Currently they are treated as not being genetically separable from standard Eudyptula minor. Several birds are kept at the International Antarctic Centre in Christchurch via rescued unreleasable birds. There was also one bird at Napier's National Aquarium (from the Napier Marineland after it closed), but I don't think it is still there. *Yellow-eyed Penguin (Megapdyptes antipodes) Can be seen at Penguin Place (a rehabilitation centre at Dunedin open for tours). None are otherwise in public collections (i.e. zoos) and they are never likely to be in the future, however sometimes rescued individuals can be seen at Wellington Zoo's hospital viewing rooms when there are birds there for recovery (before release). In the 1980s this species was kept (and even produced infertile eggs) at the Napier Marineland. *Fiordland Crested Penguin (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus) Can sometimes be seen at Penguin Place (a rehabilitation centre at Dunedin open for tours). None are otherwise in public collections (i.e. zoos) in New Zealand and they are never likely to be in the future, however sometimes rescued individuals can be seen at Wellington Zoo's hospital viewing rooms when there are birds there for recovery (before release). *Erect-crested Penguin (Eudyptes sclateri) Rescued vagrants can sometimes be seen at Penguin Place (a rehabilitation centre at Dunedin open for tours). None otherwise in captivity in New Zealand, although the species was formerly kept at Wellington Zoo, with three birds noted as being present in February 1921 in the following article: Wellington Zoo - Wellington Zoo bird collection, 1921 *Snares Crested Penguin (Eudyptes robustus) Rescued vagrants can sometimes be seen at Penguin Place (a rehabilitation centre at Dunedin open for tours). **Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) - no longer in captivity On the list solely because a vagrant individual ended up at Wellington Zoo's hospital in June 2011, and was released in the Southern Ocean in September 2011 after recovery. While at the zoo he was often viewable through the windows of the hospital. Interestingly, both Auckland and Wellington Zoos had Emperor Penguins on display in the 1920s, although none are likely to have lived long. Two birds were brought to Wellington Zoo in 1921. Six birds were captured for Auckland Zoo in 1926 by a Norwegian whaling ship and, although all were still alive upon reaching Bluff (at the bottom of New Zealand), three had died before reaching the zoo. The remaining three were photographed for the following newspaper article (Papers Past | Newspapers | New Zealand Herald | 18 March 1926 | This page). One of those three birds had died within a week or so, and the other two probably soon after. Other penguin species collected from New Zealand's subantarctic islands have also been kept at Auckland and Wellington Zoos in the early- to mid-1900s, including: **King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at Wellington Zoo. There are newspaper records for two birds being kept in 1915, one bird arriving in 1916, two birds arriving in 1921, and one bird arriving in 1923. Probably none of these survived long, although one was notable for being given free-range at the zoo. I haven't seen any articles regarding Auckland Zoo, but I'd imagine they were kept there also. **Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome) - probably the Eastern form filholi - is mentioned in the Wellington Zoo guidebook for 1948, along with "Crested Penguins" collected by Admiral Byrd. There are various photos of a Crested Penguin species from 1939 newspapers as well. **Royal Penguin (Eudyptes schlegeli) is reported in several (identical) newspaper articles as arriving at Wellington Zoo in January 1921, such as the following one (Papers Past | Newspapers | New Zealand Herald | 29 January 1921 | This page). Some of the articles say "seven birds" and some say "several birds". I think these are actually the Erect-crested Penguins mentioned in an earlier link. The ship on which the birds arrived had been visiting the Campbell, Bounty and Antipodes Island groups - on the latter two of which Erect-crested Penguins breed - but not Macquarie Island on which Royal Penguins are found. TUBENOSES The Wellington Zoo hospital treats hundreds of injured albatrosses and petrels, including such rarities as Chatham Island Taiko (Pterodroma magentae). Although they are not display birds, there are often one or more species of tubenoses viewable through the windows of the hospital there. GANNETS *Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) Injured birds unable to be released may possibly be seen somewhere. There used to be some individuals at Napier's Marineland before it closed. I'm not aware of any on display currently. CORMORANTS All these species could potentially be seen in various collections via injured rescue birds, and there would also be a slim possibility of other native species. The only cormorant species which I know is on permanent display somewhere is Spotted Shag, with one bird at Auckland Zoo. *Black Shag (Phalacrocorax carbo) *Pied Shag (Phalacrocorax varius) *Little Pied Shag (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos) *Little Black Shag (Phalacrocorax sulcirostris) *Spotted Shag (Stictocarbo punctatus) – currently [January 2020] still one at Auckland Zoo. HERONS The herons listed below are most likely to be seen as rescue birds. Nankeen Night Herons (Nycticorax caledonicus) are a self-introduced native, and Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis) are yearly migrants, so both could also occur as rescues. Both these latter species were formerly present in New Zealand zoos from imported Australian stock (see the "former species" list at the bottom for details). *White Heron (= Great White Egret) (Egretta alba modesta) Small native population, only occasionally seen in zoos (as rescue birds). Willowbank had one until recently, but otherwise I'm not aware of any currently. *Reef Heron (Egretta sacra) Locally-common along shorelines, but rarely seen in captivity (rescue birds). I don't know of any currently. *White-faced Heron (Ardea novaehollandiae) Very common in the wild, and may be seen in captivity as rescue birds which cannot be released. The only ones I know of currently (January 2020) are held at Otorohanga and Willowbank. *Australasian Brown Bittern (Botaurus poiciloptilus) Rarely seen. There were two females at Hamilton Zoo, both unreleasable birds which had been shot. One was obtained in 2015 and the other in 2016, but they don't seem to be there any longer. There was also one at Orana Park in the 1990s. SPOONBILLS and IBIS One species is a breeding native (Royal Spoonbill). Three species of ibis are vagrants from Australia, all of which were formerly present in New Zealand zoos as imported stock (see the "former species" list at the bottom for details). *Royal Spoonbill (Platalea regia) Sometimes seen in zoos, usually as injured rescue birds. I'm not aware of any currently any on display. WATERFOWL *Paradise Duck (Tadorna variegata) Common in the wild and sometimes seen in captive collections. As of January 2020, the ZAA collections holding this species are Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, Otorohanga, and Willowbank; in non-ZAA collections they are at Staglands and the Te Anau Wildlife Centre (and probably a number of other places). *Blue Duck (Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos) Formerly all the captive stock was derived from North Island birds, but more recently South Island birds have come into the breed-and-release programme. I think the captive birds are separated by island (i.e. South Island provenance birds kept only on the South Island, and North Island provenance birds kept only on the North Island). Currently Blue Duck are on display in the North Island at Auckland Zoo, Esplanade Aviaries (Palmerston North), Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Mt. Bruce, Staglands, Nga Manu; and in the South Island at Orana Park, Willowbank, and Kiwi Birdlife Park (Queenstown), as well as being bred at Peacock Springs (not open to the public). *New Zealand Scaup (Aythya novaeseelandiae) Common in the wild and sometimes seen in captive collections. As of January 2020, the ZAA collections holding this species are Auckland Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Otorohanga, Nga Manu, Natureland, and Kiwi Birdlife Park; in non-ZAA collections they are at Staglands and the Te Anau Wildlife Centre (and probably a number of other places). *Grey Teal (Anas gracilis) Common in the wild and sometimes seen in captive collections. As of January 2020, the ZAA collections holding this species are Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, and Otorohanga; in non-ZAA collections they are at Staglands (and probably a number of other places). *New Zealand Shoveller (Anas rhynchotis variegata) Common in the wild and sometimes seen in captive collections. As of January 2020, the ZAA collections holding this species are Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, Otorohanga, Willowbank, and the Kiwi Birdlife Park. *Grey Duck (= Pacific Black Duck) (Anas superciliosa) The New Zealand population is now largely a hybrid swarm through interbreeding with Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The only collections I know of which have them specifically signed as being present are Hamilton Zoo, Otorohanga, and the Te Anau Wildlife Centre. *Brown Teal (Anas chlorotis) Uncommon in the wild, found mainly in small pockets of the North Island. The South Island form is extinct but North Island birds have been released in some areas. Quite common in captivity. As of January 2020, the ZAA collections holding this species are Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Otorohanga, Nga Manu, Orana Park, Willowbank, and Kiwi Birdlife Park; in non-ZAA collections they are at the Esplanade Aviaries (Palmerston North), Staglands, and possibly the Te Anau Wildlife Centre (and probably at a number of other places). *Campbell Island Teal (Anas nesiotis) The only Campbell Island Teal left on display appear to be at Willowbank, the Kiwi Birdlife Park, and the Queens Park aviaries (in Invercargill). In 1975 on the species' rediscovery there were estimated to only be between 50 and 75 birds surviving in the wild. One male was captured in 1984 and transferred to Mt. Bruce, followed later the same year by one female and two more males. In 1990 three females and four males were captured to join the breeding programme, making a total of 6.4. (See http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/science-and-technical/TSRP07.pdf). Some internet sites say that the captive population was derived from four birds captured in 1987 which is incorrect. By 1993 the captive birds had dropped to 5.2. The first breeding wasn't achieved until 1994. Since then 159 captive-bred birds have been released onto Campbell Island following rat eradication. The breeding programme has now been halted and the remaining captive birds will die out. **Auckland Island Teal (Anas aucklandica) - no longer in captivity The captive population was founded on four pairs captured in 1984, intended to act as an analogue species for the breeding programme of Campbell Island Teal (A. nesiotis). Initially they were kept and bred at Mt. Bruce, and then spread to other facilities including Wellington Zoo and Otorohanga (http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/science-and-technical/TSRP07.pdf). I additionally saw them at Orana Park and Willowbank in the mid 1990s. When they were no longer needed for the programme the breeding was stopped, and there appear to be no A. aucklandica left in captivity now. BIRDS OF PREY There are only two native birds of prey (both below), although Black Kite (Milvus migrans) and Nankeen Kestrel (Falco cenchroides) are irregular vagrants from Australia. *Australasian Harrier (Circus approximans) Very common in the wild. They are not kept at any ZAA zoos, but may be seen as rescue birds in other collections. The one place I know they are kept on display is Wingspan (in Rotorua). The species is also allowed to be kept by private persons under falconry licences. *New Zealand Falcon (Falco novaeseelandiae) At a few zoos, as of January 2020 including Hamilton Zoo, Wingspan (Rotorua), Otorohanga, Willowbank, and the Kiwi Birdlife Park (Queenstown). Formerly at Wellington Zoo. A few people also keep them under licence for falconry. RAILS *Weka (Gallirallus australis) Quite common in zoos. There are four subspecies. *North Island Weka (G. a. greyi) is the most common in captivity although rare in the wild. Currently at Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Otorohanga, Owlcatraz, Staglands, and perhaps elsewhere. *Buff Weka (G. a .hectori) of the eastern South Island is extinct on the mainland, surviving only on the Chatham Islands to which it was introduced. There have been attempts to reintroduce it to the South Island. Genetics suggest it is actually just a colour form of the Western Weka. Currently there are birds at Willowbank and Kiwi Birdlife Park (Queenstown). *Western Weka (G. a. australis) of the western South Island is the only subspecies which is still common in the wild. It is kept at Nga Manu, although they appear to only have one bird left - I have no idea why or how they have this South Island subspecies. *Stewart Island Weka (G. a. scotti) seems to be kept only at the Queens Park aviaries in Invercargill. *Banded Rail (Rallus philippensis assimilis) Kept at few zoos (currently, as of January 2020, only at Hamilton Zoo and Otorohanga). Has been kept at Auckland Zoo, Wellington Zoo and Orana Park in the past. *Pukeko (= Purple Swamphen) (Porphyrio porphyrio melanotos) Very common in the wild, and sometimes kept in public collections - e.g. currently (January 2020) at Otorohanga, Staglands, Nga Manu, and the Kiwi Birdlife Park, and probably elsewhere. *Takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri) At Auckland Zoo, Mt. Bruce, Willowbank and Te Anau; and also in fenced sanctuaries at Zealandia (aka Karori Wildlife Sanctuary) and Dunedin's Orokonui Eco-Sanctuary. All these birds are “retired” pairs no longer needed for the (non-zoo) breeding programmes. *Marsh Crake (Porzana pusilla) Unlikely but could turn up somewhere as a rescue bird. *Spotless Crake (Porzana tabuensis) Unlikely but could turn up somewhere as a rescue bird. *Australasian Coot (Fulica atra australis) Commonly seen wild on zoo grounds; could also turn up captive as rescue birds. **Auckland Island Rail (Lewinia muelleri) - no longer in captivity Formerly treated as a subspecies of Lewin's Rail (Lewinia pectoralis). Only one individual has ever been kept in captivity, a female at Mt. Bruce. She was captured as a juvenile in 1966 and died in November 1975. The specimen is now at the Te Papa Museum: Loading... | Collections Online - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa See also Welcome | Notornis and Birds New Zealand SHOREBIRDS All shorebirds in New Zealand collections are either rescued (injured and unreleasable) birds or there as part of conservation programmes (usually for breeding, sometimes for advocacy purposes). There aren't any actual shorebird exhibits in New Zealand zoos as can be seen in overseas zoos, but random injured birds of any species could potentially turn up anywhere. *South Island Pied Oystercatcher (Haematopus finschi) Can be seen in a few places, including Otorohanga, Orana Park, and Queenstown's Kiwi Birdlife Park. *Variable Oystercatcher (Haematopus unicolor) Can be seen at Otorohanga, and possibly elsewhere as rescue birds. *Pied (White-headed) Stilt (Himantopus leucocephalus) Can be seen in several places at various times, including Auckland Zoo and Otorohanga. *Black Stilt (Himantopus novaezelandiae) Currently held at Twizel and Peacock Springs (the two breeding centres). Queenstown's Kiwi Birdlife Park usually has one or two birds for show. Mt. Bruce has kept them in the past for breeding, and Wellington Zoo also kept them until 2003. *Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica) Two unreleasable rescue birds at Otorohanga are the only captive ones of which I am aware. *Spur-winged Plover (Masked Lapwing) (Vanellus miles novaehollandiae) Very common in the wild. It is kept at Auckland Zoo and Otorohanga, and is probably also being kept in smaller non-ZAA collections. *New Zealand Shore Plover (Thinornis novaeseelandiae) Currently held as breeding birds at Peacock Springs and Mt. Bruce (off-display at both facilities). *New Zealand Dotterel (Charadrius obscurus) Currently [January 2020] still one bird on display at Auckland Zoo. Formerly also kept and bred (off-display) at Mt. Bruce. GULLS and TERNS All three native gull species could be found as injured rescued birds here and there. Napier's National Aquarium has (had?) a single Black-billed Gull (Larus bulleri), but I don't know if the other species are on display anywhere. The other two species are the Black-backed or Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) and Red-billed Gull (Larus novaehollandiae scopulinus). Potentially terns could appear also, although that is much less likely: Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia), Black-fronted Tern (Chlidonias albostriatus) and White-fronted Tern (Sterna striata) are the common New Zealand species. *Black-billed Gull (Larus bulleri) There was one at the National Aquarium in Napier, but he may no longer be there. He was originally kept at the Napier Marineland, brought in as a rescue bird with only one wing in 1999, and moved to the Aquarium after the closure of the Marineland. PIGEONS *New Zealand Pigeon (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae) The only native pigeon species on mainland New Zealand. Commonly seen in zoos, mostly via rescue birds. As of January 2020, the ZAA collections holding this species are Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Otorohanga, Nga Manu, Natureland, Orana Park, Willowbank, and the Kiwi Birdlife Park; in non-ZAA collections they are at Mill Creek Bird Park, the Esplanade Aviaries (Palmerston North), Mt Bruce, and maybe still at Staglands and the Te Anau Wildlife Centre (and are probably kept at a number of other places). **Chatham Islands Pigeon (Hemiphaga chathamensis) - none in captivity I have a newspaper article from 1995 which says this species was being kept at the time at Peacock Springs (Isaacs Wildlife Trust) in Christchurch, but I have no other information on it. PARROTS *Kea (Nestor notabilis) Common in zoos. As of January 2020, currently held at Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Otorohanga, Staglands, Nga Manu, Wellington Zoo, Natureland, Orana Park, Willowbank, Kiwi Birdlife Park (Queenstown), Dunedin Botanic Gardens, and Queens Park (Invercargill). They are apparently no longer kept at the Te Anau Wildlife Centre (as of a 2017 visit). *North Island Kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) Fairly common in North Island zoos (they are no longer allowed to kept in the South Island, in case of escapes). As of January 2020, currently held at Auckland Zoo, Esplanade Aviaries (Palmerston North), Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Otorohanga, Mt. Bruce, Staglands, and Nga Manu. *South Island Kaka (Nestor meridionalis meridionalis) Uncommonly seen in zoos (and only in the South Island). As of January 2020, currently held at Natureland, Willowbank, Peacock Springs (not open to the public), Orana Park, Dunedin Botanic Gardens, Queens Park (Invercargill), and Te Anau Wildlife Centre. *Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) Occasionally one (the hand-reared Sirocco) is on view to the public for fund-raising purposes, usually at sanctuaries such as Zealandia or Orokonui, but on at least one occasion at Auckland Zoo. Hand-raised birds are sometimes shown to public before release. Occasionally birds under treatment may be seen at Wellington Zoo's hospital. In the 1960s an attempt at captive breeding was made at Mt. Bruce. Five birds were captured in February 1961 in Fiordland, all of which turned out to be males. Four died within months of capture, and the fifth survived for four years. Another was captured in 1967 and died the following year. *Yellow-crowned Kakariki (Cyanoramphus auriceps) Very common in public and private collections. *Red-crowned Kakariki (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) Very common in public and private collections. *Orange-fronted Kakariki (Cyanoramphus malherbi) As of January 2020, currently on-display at Auckland Zoo, off-display at Orana Park, and also at Peacock Springs (which is not open to the public). I think they may be back at Mt Bruce as well but I'm not sure. Formerly they had been also held at Dunedin Botanic Gardens, Nga Manu, and the Te Anau Wildlife Centre. *Antipodes Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor) As of January 2020, currently kept at Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, Esplanade Aviaries (Palmerston North), Otorohanga, Mt. Bruce (still?), Kiwi Birdlife Park (Queenstown), Queens Park (Invercargill) and Te Anau Wildlife Centre (still?). Formerly have also been kept at Rainbow Springs, Wellington Zoo, Orana Park, Willowbank, and Dunedin Botanic Gardens. A small number are also still in private hands. There is some confusion over the origins of the captive population of the Antipodes Island Parakeet. The old DoC captive management plan of 1995 says that 11 birds were captured in 1984 and 1990 but, bizarrely, this is actually the data for Campbell Island Teal (Anas nesiotis). In fact, three pairs of each of the native parrots on the island (C. unicolor and C. hochstetteri - i.e. six birds of each species, or twelve in total) were captured during the University of Canterbury Antipodes Island Expedition of January to March 1969, and taken to Mt. Bruce. Two more individuals of both species were also collected in February 1970 and brought back to Mt. Bruce. The report of the expedition was written up in the Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand (1975, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 103-131) which can be read online. An introduced population was also on Stephens Island in Cook Strait for a short period (fifteen captive-bred birds released in 1986, which were mostly eaten by Tuatara due to their habit of nesting in burrows, with the last four birds being removed in 1988). There had also been birds brought alive to New Zealand previously, as some (reportedly 12 birds) were released in 1907 on Kapiti Island near Wellington after being collected earlier that year from Antipodes Island. They are said to have survived there for around twenty years before dying out. **Reischek's Kakariki (Cyanoramphus hochstetteri) - no longer in captivity Kept (and bred) at Mt. Bruce from 1969 until at least the mid-1990s, from birds collected in the wild (see C. unicolor above). At the time, this species was considered to be a subspecies of Red-crowned Kakariki (C. novaezelandiae). **Forbes' Parakeet (Cyanoramphus forbesi) - no longer in captivity Has been kept at Mt. Bruce in the past for captive breeding. It seems the captive population was started with six birds in the mid-1970s (around 1976). I know they were present in the years 1979 and 1983 (from sound-recordings available online, which were made at Mt. Bruce). At the time, this species was considered to be a subspecies of the Yellow-crowned Kakariki (C. auriceps). CUCKOOS *There are only two native species, the Long-tailed Cuckoo (Eudynamys taitensis) and the Shining Cuckoo (Chrysococcyx lucidus). Both are sometimes injured and end up in rescue centres. Potentially they could be seen in a zoo although this is unlikely. OWLS *Morepork (Ninox novaeseelandiae) Found in many zoos, often in Kiwi Houses. Those I know of currently [January 2020] are Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Wingspan (Rotorua), Mill Creek Bird Park, Otorohanga, Nga Manu, Owlcatraz, Natureland, Orana Park, Willowbank, Kiwi Birdlife Park (Queenstown), and Te Anau Wildlife Centre. *Australian Barn Owl (Tyto alba delicatula) The Barn Owls currently in NZ (in the wild and captivity) all descend from a vagrant pair in Northland which has produced a small wild population.Currently just a few birds are in captivity in New Zealand, all rescued and non-releasable (mostly having been hit by cars), and all at the Wingspan Birds of Prey Centre in Rotorua. These are one female from 2009 and at least two birds (male and female) from 2016 [there may be other individuals also]. At least two chicks have since been bred here, in 2017 and 2019. Barn Owls were formerly kept in several zoos – including Auckland Zoo, Wellington Zoo, the (now-closed) Napier Kiwi House, Otorohanga Kiwi House, Orana Park, and Willowbank – via imported birds from Australia but I don't know if they ever bred here in captivity. The last ones disappeared in 2007 (one female at Otorohanga and two pairs at Wellington Zoo). KINGFISHERS *Sacred Kingfisher (Todiramphus sanctus) At a few zoos and rescue centres. As of January 2020, the ZAA collections holding this species are Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Otorohanga, Orana Park, and Willowbank. WARBLERS, FLYCATCHERS, etc **Yellowhead (Mohoua ochrocephala) - no longer in captivity Kept at Orana Park and Peacock Springs in c.1995 (they successfully bred at Orana Park) but all died of aspergillosis. Birds caught in 2003 to start a new captive colony all died of avian malaria. No longer any in captivity. **Whitehead (Mohoua albicilla) - no longer in captivity Have been kept a number of times (e.g. at Otorohanga and Mt. Bruce) but there are no longer any in captivity. **New Zealand Robin (Petroica australis) - no longer in captivity None currently in captivity but I think they have been kept in the past (perhaps at Otorohanga and Mt. Bruce). WHITE-EYES *Silvereye (Zostrops lateralis) Common wild bird in New Zealand, but only very rarely in zoos. HONEYEATERS *Tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) Fairly often kept in zoos, mostly as rescue birds. As of January 2020, the ZAA collections holding this species are Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Otorohanga, Nga Manu, Natureland, Orana Park, Willowbank, and the Kiwi Birdlife Park. Also kept at the Esplanade Aviaries (Palmerston North), and probably elsewhere. *Bellbird (Anthornis melanura) Common in the wild, and sometimes kept in zoos. As of January 2020, the ZAA collections holding this species are Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, Rainbow Springs, Otorohanga, and Orana Park. Also kept at Mt Bruce and at the Esplanade Aviaries (Palmerston North), and probably elsewhere. STITCHBIRDS *Stitchbird (Notiomystis cincta) Currently only at Mt. Bruce. I'm not aware of them ever having been kept elsewhere. NEW ZEALAND WATTLEBIRDS *North Island Kokako (Callaeas cinerea wilsoni) Currently only at Mt. Bruce [as of January 2020]. Have formerly been held at Auckland Zoo, Hamilton Zoo, and Otorohanga. *North Island Saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater) Only at Auckland Zoo, which received ten wild-caught birds in September 2016. Prior to these the last in a zoo were at Orana Park in 2010. Has also been kept at Mt. Bruce and Otorohanga in the past. **South Island Saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus) - no longer in captivity Several pairs were kept and bred by a private aviculturist (under a permit) from the 1970s through the 1990s. Currently none in captivity.