This is a list of all exotic mammals currently found in Australian zoos (and in some cases in private hands and research facilities because these may enter zoos at any point). I have put subspecies only where it is relevant. The localities for some species won't be complete, especially the deer and camelids, so I have made notes to that effect where appropriate. I have attempted to include origin data for the current stock of all species but this is of course a bit patchy. Some species are well-documented, others are not. The origin data is not intended to be an account of every individual animal except in those cases where only a few unrelated individuals exist - it is instead mostly to do with the origins of the zoo populations as a whole. Because adding all the origin data to the list on the original thread made it far too long to be contained within a single post I have had to re-start it as a brand new thread, with the list split into two posts. The original thread (which is now locked, but in which all posts can still be read) is here: Exotic Mammals in Australian Zoos - old version That original thread had its genesis in a thread by CGSwans, which can be seen here: exotic mammals in each Australian zoo A discussion thread was also created when I was looking for some of the origin data, and that can be seen here: Australian zoo mammal histories Corrections are welcomed. ELEPHANTIDAE *Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) – Melbourne; Perth; Taronga; Western Plains Zoo The first Asian Elephant in an Australian zoo was a female named Jessie imported from India in 1882 for the zoo at Billy Goat Swamp (the fore-runner to Taronga Zoo, which officially opened in 1916 on a different site); she died in 1939. Of the ones currently in the country, Melbourne's group has a male (Bong Su) imported from Malaysia in 1977, a female (Mek Kapah) from Malaysia in 1978, and three females (Dokoon, Kulab, Num-oi) from Thailand in 2006; these have produced 2.2 calves to date. Perth has three elephants: one imported from Singapore in 1963 (female Tricia) and two from Malaysia in 1992 (male Putra Mas and female Permai). Taronga's group (now split in two, with some at Taronga and some at WPZ) was started with a 2004 import from Thailand of one male (Gung) and four females (Tang Mo, Porntip, Thong Dee, Pak Boon), which have produced 3.1 calves to date (one of them sired by Melbourne's bull). WPZ also has two old ex-circus females (Burma and Gigi). EQUIDAE *Common Zebra (Equus quagga) – Altina; Australia Zoo; Darling Downs; Melbourne; Mogo; Monarto; National Zoo; Werribee; Western Plains Zoo; Perth; Taronga; Zoodoo There are about 70 Zebras in Australia, and they can be roughly divided into three groups of stock (although in general all are treated as one population, and individuals are moved around between zoos). The first group are the hybrid-subspecies descendants of original imports to the major zoos (Taronga, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth). All had kept Zebras since the early 1900s. Probably Taronga's were the dominant founders but I don't know anything much otherwise. This stock forms the basis of the current groups at Taronga, Western Plains, Mogo and National Zoo. The second group is from 2.6 Chapman's Zebras imported to Werribee from Rotterdam Zoo (Netherlands) in 1980 (and later a male from Singapore Zoo c.1997). Monarto's and Melbourne's current Zebra herds are derived from Werribee. The third and most recent group are ten Grant's Zebras imported by DDZ from various zoos in the USA in early 2014. Some of these went to Zoodoo. The other zoos have odds and ends: Altina (from Werribee), Australia Zoo (from Werribee), Perth (from National Zoo). There have also been a few imports of individual animals from NZ. *Persian Onager (Equus hemionus onager) – four at Western Plains Zoo The remnant herd here is descended from eight animals, these being 2.2 from Rotterdam Zoo (Netherlands) in 1979, and 1.3 from the USA in 1982. [I have seen several different versions of these numbers and dates - the ones I give were from an article released by the zoo itself]. *Przewalski's Horse (Equus (ferus) przewalskii) – Altina; Halls Gap; Monarto; Werribee; Western Plains Zoo; also about 20 at Fernhill Estate in Mulgoa The entire world population is descended from just nine founders. The first one in Australia was a male at Adelaide in 1910 (paired with a donkey). The current Australian zoo population is descended from 4.9 animals imported in 1982 to WPZ (via Melbourne Zoo) from the UK (Whipsnade, Marwell, and Midway Manor). First birth was in 1984. Adelaide also imported a pair in 1981 from the UK. The privately-held animals at Mulgoa are from 1.8 imported to the Pearl Coast Zoo from Marwell in 1987/88, which later went to Tipperary. There are about 65 in total held in Australia but a large proportion are post-reproductive or castrated. Animals from Australian zoos have been used in reintroduction programmes to Mongolia. TAPIRIDAE *Brazilian Tapir (Tapirus terrestris) – two females at Adelaide; one male and one female at Darling Downs; one male at Melbourne The last remnants of a good-sized population formerly breeding at Adelaide, Melbourne and WPZ. All are related, most are now elderly, and none are in breeding situations. Adelaide's are a mother and daughter. DDZ's male was WPZ's breeding male (at Alma Park since 2012, then DDZ since 2013), and the female was bred at Adelaide in 1998 (at Taronga since 2006, then DDZ since 2014). Melbourne's male was bred at WPZ in 2006 (kept at Melbourne since 2012). *Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus) – two females at Adelaide; one male at Hunter Valley Zoo; one female at Melbourne The current zoo stock results from four animals imported in the late 1990s. To Taronga: a male from Toronto Zoo (Canada) in 1996 [at Hunter Valley since mid-2015] and a female from Philadelphia Zoo (USA) in 1998 [died 2008]. To Adelaide: a male from Singapore Zoo in 1997 [died 2008] and a female from Henry Doorly Zoo (USA) in 1998 [still at Adelaide]. A female was born at Taronga in 1999 [kept at Melbourne since 2001], and a female at Adelaide in 2000 [still at Adelaide]. All individuals in Australia are now blind. RHINOCEROTIDAE *Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) – Altina; Australia Zoo; Mogo; Monarto; National Zoo; Perth; Werribee; Western Plains Zoo The first White Rhinos imported into Australia were three (1.2) to WPZ via Taronga in 1980 from Longleat and Woburn (UK), followed in 1981 by a pair to WPZ (also via Taronga) and a pair to Werribee, all four coming from Whipsnade (UK). A male was imported to Werribee from Emmen Zoo (Netherlands) in 1997, a female to Monarto from Singapore Zoo in 2000, and groups of wild-caught animals were imported from South Africa in 1999 and 2002 to Werribee, WPZ, Perth and Monarto. A number of additional NZ animals have been imported since 1990, including the original pair at Perth in 1990 from the USA via Orana Park. The first birth in Australia was at WPZ in 1981, and they have since bred at all of the listed holding zoos except National (three males from NZ in April 2014), Mogo (two males from Australia Zoo in Jan 2015), and Altina (one male from Auckland Zoo in Sept 2016, and two females from Australia Zoo and Serengeti-Park Hodenhagen [Germany] in Oct 2016). *Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) – Monarto; Western Plains Zoo Taronga imported several from Kenya and Tanzania between 1947 and 1950, and bred nine at the zoo between 1958 and 1975. Kept at WPZ since 1991 when the last two animals in Australia were sent there from Taronga (two females: one had been bred at Taronga in 1958, and the other had come from Perth in 1981 [imported 1950/51]). In 1992 nine (2.7) wild-caught animals were imported to WPZ from Zimbabwe (2.1 died soon after), followed in 1994 by four males imported from zoos in the USA (one of these males later spent a couple of years at Taronga c.2005/2006). There have been many calves born at WPZ (about a dozen, including those now at Monarto [two males]). *Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) – three at Western Plains Zoo The male Dora was imported to Taronga from Nagoya Zoo (Japan) in 2001 and then moved on to WPZ in 2003. A female named Kua was imported from San Diego Zoo (USA) in 2006 but died at Taronga in 2007 before being moved on. A new female, Amala from Oklahoma City Zoo (USA), was imported in 2009. The first (only) breeding was a male calf born in October 2015. HIPPOPOTAMIDAE *Common Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) – Adelaide; Werribee; Western Plains Zoo The first Hippo in Australia was at Adelaide in 1900 (died 1901), but the first breeding pair were at Melbourne, imported in 1913. The species has been in the country continuously since then, but there are only eight founders for the entire Australasian population. The current total in Australia is about a dozen animals. *Pigmy Hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) – one male at Adelaide; one male at Melbourne; one pair at Taronga plus a female young The first individual in Australia was imported to Taronga in 1954 from Washington (USA) and many were bred in at least five zoos between the 1960s to 2000s. Currently there are just five in the country, all of which are related. The sole remaining adult female is Kambiri, born at Taronga in 2010 (to Honolulu-born male Timmy, imported in 1981, and Adelaide-born female Petre). Petre was born in 1984 (to Melbourne-born Henry and Janice) and died at Melbourne in 2016. The two adult males are brothers Felix (at Melbourne) and Fergus (at Taronga), bred at Mareeba in 2006 and 2009 (to Melbourne-born male Kumbe and Broome-born female Fluffy). The last male is Obi, now at Adelaide but born at Melbourne in 2015 to Felix and Petre. A male named Pi, imported from Washington in 1970, sired the fathers of Petre, Kumbe and Fluffy (and the latter two shared the same father). CAMELIDAE *Arabian Camel (Dromedary) (Camelus dromedarius) – Altina; Australia Zoo; Darling Downs; Gorge; Halls Gap; Hunter Valley; Mansfield; Oakvale; Shoalhaven; Tasmania Zoo; Werribee; Western Plains Zoo; Wings Wildlife Park; Zoodoo. [Also undoubtably held on show in other small collections apart for the ones listed here] Introduced to the wild (via released domestics) in the mid-1800s. *Guanaco (Lama guanicoe) – one at Darling Downs; otherwise currently only in very low numbers in private hands. DDZ has (or had) a male on loan from a farm. Otherwise the last in a zoo were three pairs at Western Plains Zoo until around 2009/2010 when they went to a private holder in Taralga (NSW). Taronga had them at least as far back as the 1940s, and were probably the original importers. *Llama (Lama glama) – Caversham; Darling Downs; Hunter Valley; Mansfield; Oakvale; Shoalhaven; Symbio; Zoodoo. [Farmed in Australia so undoubtably held on show in other small collections apart for the ones listed here] *Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) – Adelaide; Altina; Australian Walkabout Wildlife Park; Ballarat Wildlife Park; Caversham; Green Valley Farm; Gumbuya Park; Halls Gap; National Zoo; Oakvale; Peel; Symbio; Tasmania Zoo; Wagga Wagga Zoo; Wildlife HQ; Wings Wildlife Park; Zoodoo. [Farmed in Australia so undoubtably held on show in other small collections apart for the ones listed here] Llamas and Alpacas have been kept in Australian zoos and farms at various times since the 1800s, but the current stock is largely the result of private imports from NZ (from Chilean imports) in 1988, followed by direct imports from Peru and Bolivia. There are now something like 200,000 Alpacas in Australia and 7000 Llamas. CERVIDAE The following are the collections where we know these deer species are being kept. There are many small collections in Australia which undoubtably hold one or more of these on public show as well. All are also held in private hands. *Rusa (Cervus timorensis) – Altina; Cooberrie; Mansfield Introduced to the wild in various areas between the late-1800s and mid-1900s, with stock coming from Java and the Moluccas. Now also farmed commercially. *Sambar (Cervus unicolor) – Mansfield Introduced to several parts of the country from the 1860s through to the early 1900s, using stock from India, Sri Lanka and Sumatra. Now also farmed commercially. *Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) – Altina; Darlng Downs; Halls Gap; Mansfield; Monarto; Peel Introduced widely from the mid-1800s to many parts of the country, with all the stock being English. Now also farmed commercially (in part with imports from NZ after 1985). *Wapiti (Cervus canadensis) – Altina; Halls Gap; National Zoo Not found wild in Australia. The species was first imported in numbers from NZ and Canada for commercial deer farming in 1985; however there may have been some in zoos prior to this also (from NZ stock). *Fallow Deer (Dama dama) – Adelaide; Altina; Birdland Animal Park; Caversham; Cooberrie; Halls Gap; Hunter Valley; Mansfield; Mogo; National Zoo; Peel; Rockhampton; Symbio (still?); Tasmania Zoo; Zoodoo First released into the wild in the 1830s in Tasmania, and later elsewhere on the mainland until the early 1900s. Now also farmed commercially. *Persian Fallow Deer (Dama (dama) mesopotamica) – Monarto All the farmed stock in Australia is hybrid, derived from imported mesopotamica sperm used to artificially inseminate female dama in the 1980s. Monarto's animals are from this hybrid farm stock. *Spotted Deer (Chital) (Axis axis) – Caversham?; Taronga The first deer species to be released into the wild in Australia. There were many releases throughout the 1800s in many parts of the country. All were from India. Now also farmed commercially. *Hog Deer (Axis porcinus) – Altina; Halls Gap Introduced to the wild in Victoria in 1866 (12 animals from India) where they became established. Zoo animals derive from the wild stock. GIRAFFIDAE *Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) – Adelaide; Altina; Australia Zoo; Darling Downs; Halls Gap; Melbourne; Mogo; Monarto; National Zoo; Perth; Taronga; Werribee; Western Plains Zoo Up until the 1980s all the giraffes in Australia were descended from the herd at Taronga. In the 1920s and 30s many were imported to Australia, but the only zoo to sustain breeding was Taronga and their animals supplied the other zoos. The Taronga herd was descended entirely from three animals (a pair imported from Africa in the 1930s and a female from USA in 1950) until the import of a male from Honolulu Zoo (USA) in 1983 (which was related to the 1950 female). Melbourne's current breeding female came from Ouwehands Zoo (Netherlands) 1997. All further animals which have been imported since the 1990s have been from NZ (from Orana's Rothschild's herd and Auckland's hybrid herd [the latter is also partly descended from Honolulu Zoo animals]). There are about 70 Giraffes in Australia. BOVIDAE *Banteng (Bos javanicus) – Altina; Crocodylus; Western Plains Zoo. Also in private hands The Banteng in Australia are all descended from a group of about 20 domestic animals (“Bali cattle”) released in the Northern Territory in 1849. The current zoo and farm animals derive from the feral population. *Domestic Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) – Altina; Caversham; Crocodylus; Halls Gap; Mogo; Oakvale; Rockhampton; Shoalhaven; Symbio; Western Plains Zoo; Wings Wildlife Park. [Also probably held in other small collections apart for the ones listed here] The Australian population is descended from about 80 animals imported from Indonesia to settlements in the Northern Territory between the 1820s and 1850s, which were later released to become feral. *African Forest Buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus) – one female at Werribee; one male at Western Plains Zoo Only two animals left in the country. The male is castrated. The original stock was imported from the UK in the late 1980s. *American Bison (Bison bison) – Altina; Halls Gap; Mansfield; Monarto; Werribee; Wings Wildlife Park. Also in private hands. As with NZ the founder stock was gift pairs from the Canadian government to various Australian zoos in the early 1900s. The only later additions were from NZ (at least one import from Auckland Zoo to Adelaide around the 1950s). There are only about 40 Bison in zoos, but they are also held privately (the farmed stock derives from the zoo stock). *Barbary Sheep (Aoudad) (Ammotragus lervia) – Altina; Darling Downs; Halls Gap; Hunter Valley; Monarto; National Zoo; Taronga; Western Plains Zoo. Also in private hands. About 160 in zoos, all descended from imports to Taronga. Originally from just one pair, imported from Africa in 1929. Later imports were two animals in 1952 from National Zoo (USA) and one male and three pregnant females in 1957 from Honolulu Zoo (USA). *Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus) – Altina; Halls Gap; Mansfield; Taronga; Wildlife HQ Descended from one import of three animals from NZ to Taronga in 1932. I don't think there have been any later additions, and there are only about 40 left in zoos here. *Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) – Altina; Darling Downs; Halls Gap; Hunter Valley; Mansfield; Monarto; National Zoo; Werribee; Western Plains Zoo; Wildlife HQ. Also in private hands The Australian zoo (and private) population derives mostly or entirely from Taronga which was breeding them in large numbers from an original stock of three pairs in the early 1900s. Ultimately they probably originate from the same stock as the wild population in Western Australia (released c.1898). There are about 280 held in zoos in Australia. *Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) -- only in private hands The last on public display appear to have been a pair at Monarto in 2009/2010 (the last of the old Adelaide stock). All the stock currently left in the country - none of which are in zoos - is descended from an import of 1.3 animals from Marwell Zoo (UK) to the Pearl Coast Zoo in 1987, which later went to Tipperary. *Eland (Taurotragus oryx) – Altina; Monarto; National Zoo; Werribee; Western Plains Zoo Bred in large numbers at Taronga since initial births in the 1940s (the animals were imported direct from Africa). At one point Taronga only had one breeding female, so the current animals must be extremely inbred. There are currently well over 100 in the country. *Bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus) – Altina; Monarto; Taronga; Western Plains Zoo There are just seven Bongo in Australia, only two of which are females. One female was imported in May 2017 from Wellington Zoo (NZ), originally from Singapore Zoo. All the other Bongos in Australia are descended from three animals (2.1) imported from the USA in 1995. (A second female in that import had died without offspring). *Nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) - Werribee Seven animals (3.4) were imported from New Zealand in November 2016. The only other Nyala in Australia in recent decades were two pairs Imported to the Pearl Coast Zoo from Marwell Zoo (UK) in 1988. After the zoo's closure in 1991 they went to Tipperary Wildlife Sanctuary, and later may have gone to the Mary River Station (Tipperary closed in 2004). They had all died at some point between 1991 and the 2000s though. *Common Waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) – Altina; Monarto; Werribee Less than fifteen left in the country, all descended from a trio (1.2) imported by Werribee from Honolulu Zoo (USA) in 1995. *Addax (Addax nasomaculatus) – Altina; Darling Downs; Monarto; Werribee; Western Plains Zoo. Also in private hands. The zoo stock (c.60-70 animals) is mostly descended from 2.5 imported by Werribee from Fossil Rim (USA) in 1994. The stock in private hands is descended from two imports by the Pearl Coast Zoo of one pair (?) from Midway Manor (UK) in 1988, and 12 animals from the USA via NZ in 1991; these later went to Mary River after the zoo's closure. Altina's animals came from Mary River, as do some additional animals at the other zoos. *Scimitar-horned Oryx (Oryx dammah) – Altina; Monarto; Werribee; Western Plains Zoo. Also in private hands. Mostly descended from 5.4 imported to the Pearl Coast Zoo from Marwell Zoo (UK) in 1987, and four from the USA via NZ in 1991. Others also appear to have been imported to other zoos from Orana Park (NZ) in the 1980s and 1990s. TAYASSUIDAE *Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu) – Melbourne The entire (formerly very large) Australasian population was derived solely from one pair imported to Wellington Zoo (NZ) from Canada in 1969. In 2005 there was only one non-castrated male left in Australia (at Melbourne), which was then mated with several of the remaining females. The last individual at Adelaide (a male) was sent to Melbourne in 2015. Currently there are only seven animals left in Australia. The last peccary in New Zealand died in 2011. PRIMATES *Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) – Adelaide; Altina; Australia Zoo; Gorge; Halls Gap; Melbourne; Mogo; National Zoo; Oakvale; Perth; Symbio; Taronga; Tasmania Zoo; Western Plains Zoo; Wildlife HQ Population seems in good shape, with about 100 animals in the country, but I don't have any details otherwise. There have been many imports from Europe and the USA so there are a reasonable number of founders. *Black And White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia variegata) – Australia Zoo; Halls Gap; Melbourne; Mogo; National Zoo; Perth; Western Plains Zoo There are about 30 Ruffed Lemurs in Australia but most of the animals in the country were produced from the breeding pairs at Perth and Mogo. Melbourne and National mostly hold elderly females bred at Hamilton Zoo (NZ). *White-fronted Lemur (Eulemur albifrons) – two at Gorge Perth Zoo imported eight animals in 1983 and kept/bred them until the 1990s. The last three were sent to Western Plains Zoo. I think one died there and the last two went to Gorge Wildlife Park around 2009 or 2010. These two were born in 1993 and 1994 at Perth. *Golden Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) – Adelaide; Halls Gap; Melbourne; Mogo; Perth; Wildlife HQ This species is managed internationally but the Australian population is in pretty poor shape now. Historically they have bred well here, since the initial main import by Adelaide of five pairs from the National Zoo (USA) in 1980 (descendants of which are still in the country), but now there are only about 30 animals, many of them elderly and few breeding. Currently Adelaide and Mogo are having good results. There are several imported animals from the USA, Europe and Singapore along with the Australian-bred ones. *Emperor Tamarin (Saguinus imperator) – Adelaide; Darling Downs; Melbourne; Mogo; Perth; Wildlife HQ The former mixed-subspecies population in Australian zoos was phased out, and new European imports of pure S. i. subgrisescens were made to Melbourne and Perth in the mid-2000s. In 2013 there were some additional animals imported from Europe and South Africa. The last male in NZ, originally from Germany, also went to Australia in 2013. *Cottontop Tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) – Adelaide; Alexandra Park Zoo; Crocodylus; Darling Downs; Gorge; Halls Gap; Hartley's Crocodile Adventures; Hunter Valley; Melbourne; Mogo; National Zoo; Perth; Symbio; Taronga;Tasmania Zoo; Wild Animal Encounters; Wildlife HQ In Australasia this species is entirely managed by a studbook system and has a number of international founders. I don't know any details about the population but there are over 100 individuals in Australian zoos. *Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) – Altina; Cooberrie; Crocodylus; Darling Downs; Gorge; Halls Gap; Hunter Valley; National Zoo; Shoalhaven; Symbio; Tasmania Zoo; Wildlife HQ; Wild Animal Encounters; Wings Wildlife Park; Zoodoo. Also in research facilities. There are about 70 or 80 Common Marmosets in Australian zoos. The species has been in the country for a long time but their ancestries are largely unknown and most are probably related. There have been no imports since the 1970s but many also came into zoos from laboratory situations. *Pigmy Marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea) – Adelaide; Darling Downs; Halls Gap; Hunter Valley; Mogo; Perth; Symbio; Wildlife HQ The three main breeders in the country are Adelaide, Perth and Mogo, which all imported them in the early 2000s (Perth also in the early 1990s). There have been several further imports in the later 2000s from Europe and the USA. There are now about 60 animals in Australian zoos. *Bolivian Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) – Adelaide; Hunter Valley; Melbourne; Mogo; National Zoo; Perth; Taronga Composed of remnant older stock from 1970s imports (now all subspecific-hybrids) and new stock (pure S. b. boliviensis). The new ones are an import of males from Apenheul (Netherlands) in 2010; an import of two males and twelve females from La Boissierre du Dore (France) in 2014; plus some additional males derived from a similar import of 30 animals to NZ in 2012. Most of the original stock in Australia is post-reproductive – when the new imports occurred there were only about a dozen of the older animals left in Australia. *Black-capped Capuchin (Sapajus (Cebus) apella) – Altina; Crocodylus; Darling Downs; Gorge; Halls Gap; Hunter Valley; Melbourne; Mogo; National Zoo; Perth; Shoalhaven; Tasmania Zoo; Wild Animal Encounters; Wings Wildlife Park; Zoodoo This species has been kept and bred in zoos and circuses for a very long time, and the population is very inbred. Animals from NZ have been brought in, but I don't know when the last ones from outside the region have been imported. Currently there are about 100 animals in Australian zoos. *White-fronted Capuchin (Cebus albifrons) – Gorge; Mansfield Originally at Perth Zoo (since the 1930s). The last ones (by then just 2.1) from Perth's colony went to Halls Gap in 2010, and from there to Mansfield in 2013. The group at Gorge (less than ten animals) probably also originated at Perth. *Geoffroy's (Black-handed) Spider Monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) – Banana Cabana; Billabong; Crocodylus; Gorge; Halls Gap; Hunter Valley; Melbourne; Western Plains Zoo; Wildlife HQ This species has been widely kept in Australian zoos since the early/mid 1900s and the resulting population is a subspecific-hybrid mix. There are less than 30 animals left in the country and most are now either post-reproductive or are not in effective breeding situations (most are in pairs, trios, or single-sex groups). *Nancy Ma's Douroucouli (Aotus nancymaae) – only in a Brisbane research facility of the ADF The Australian Defence Force (ADF) imported 46 individuals from the USA in 2007/2008 for research into mosquito-borne diseases. Forty others were similarly imported for research purposes in 1982/1985, and there were a few in zoos also at that time (although in the 1980s all Aotus were treated as one species, A. trivirgatus, so it is impossible to be precise as to identities). *Black And White Colobus (Colobus guereza) – Melbourne; Monarto; National Zoo Formerly in two separate breeding groups dating back to the 1980s, at Melbourne (C. g. guereza from the UK) and Perth (C. g. kikuyuensis from the USA). The two groups were later mixed. A male was also imported to Monarto in 2006 from the USA. There are only about a dozen left in the country, however they are still kept in breeding groups at Monarto and National. *De Brazza's Monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus) – one at National Zoo Formerly well-established in the major zoos since the late 1970s, although derived from only a few founders (3 in 1978, 1 in 1989, and 1 in 2001). A halt to breeding by ZAA in the early 2000s reduced them to a remnant of post-reproductive "retired" animals. In 2015 there were five animals left, at Mogo, National and Tasmania Zoos. There is now just one, at National Zoo. *Vervet (Chlorocebus pygerythrus johnstoni) – Werribee A group of ten was imported in 1996 from the USA. All the current animals (c.15) were bred at Werribee. Perth kept a Chlorocebus species until late 2006 when the remainder (four animals, one of which was a baby born that year) were sent to Gorge. These animals were called C. aethiops by the zoo and listed by the ZAA as being C. aethiops johnstoni (formerly all Chlorocebus were lumped as C. aethiops). *Mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) – Adelaide; Melbourne; Tasmania Zoo Formerly in other zoos also, including Taronga until early 2000s (possibly derived from a 1953 import of three animals from Africa). Adelaide's troop started in 1964 with 1.2 from Berlin Zoo (Germany), two of which turned out to be hybrids with Drills (Mandrillus leucophaeus). In 1975 they got a pure male from Taronga and paired him with their one pure female (removing all the hybrids, so the troop was thus derived from just two pure animals). Melbourne's original troop was from a pair from Berlin Zoo, of which the female was a hybrid. Their current (pure) troop was established in 1996 with a male from Jerusalem Biblical Zoo (Israel) and females from Adelaide. The male died in July 2017 and now there are just two females at Melbourne. Tasmania Zoo had a retired pair from Adelaide (in 2008 Adelaide replaced their original male with one bred at Melbourne), but the male died in 2015. All current stock in the country, now totalling just eight animals (1.7), thus appears to be descended from only three founders (two males, one female). *Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas) – Adelaide; Crocodylus; Darling Downs; Melbourne; Perth; Wildlife HQ. Also in research facilities. There are quite a number of Hamadryas Baboons in Australian zoos (about 40), but almost all are related and historically the populations have been poorly managed with castration of males being commonplace. Melbourne's group is by far the largest and dominates the zoo population. It was initially started with a female imported through Perth in 1948 and a male from the Ceylon Zoo (Sri Lanka) in 1949; there was probably no new blood until a large group (3.14) was imported from Dierenpark Emmen (Netherlands) in 1998, and then a further two males from the USA in 2012 and six females from Wellington Zoo (NZ) in 2015/16. Adelaide's former troop was established with 1.3 imported from the Berlin Zoo (Germany) in 1972, but their current animals are from Melbourne and Wellington stock. Perth's original animals were imported from the Jerusalem Biblical Zoo (Israel) in the 1950s but now have additions from Melbourne and Adelaide. The baboons at the smaller zoos are all from Melbourne (or descended from that stock) apart for two females at DDZ which were imported from the Warsaw Zoo (Poland) in 2012. *Japanese Macaque (Macaca fuscata) – Gorge; Launceston City Park The enclosure at Launceston in Tasmania held Rhesus Macaques from the late 1800s to 1979, after which the city council imported ten Japanese Macaques from the Japanese Monkey Centre in 1980 (in exchange for Red-necked Wallabies); currently the colony contains about 25 macaques. The three old animals at Gorge are the remnants of the former breeding group at Perth, rather than being surplus from Launceston. *Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) – Banana Cabana; Green Valley Farm; Hunter Valley; Tasmania Zoo; Wings Wildlife Park; Zoodoo. Also in research facilities. This species was widely held in zoos and circuses in the past, but as with all the macaques has been greatly diminished over the last decade due to zoo fears of Herpes B virus. Probably only about 15 left in zoos. Hundreds have also been imported from Indonesia for research facilities. *Southern Pig-tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) – currently only in research facilities Over 300 individuals were imported from Indonesia between 2000 and 2009 for research facilities. Formerly they were also widely held in zoos and circuses. *Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) – Banana Cabana; Crocodylus; Darling Downs; Mansfield This species was widely held in zoos and circuses in the past, but probably only 10-15 animals left in zoos now. *Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata) – Banana Cabana; Mansfield This species was widely held in zoos and circuses in the past, but it seems that there are now only two old animals left in the country. *Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) – Rockhampton; Tasmania Zoo This species has been kept in all the major zoos through the 1900s. The last two groups (both very inbred) were at Adelaide and Melbourne. Fears about Herpes B in macaques caused breeding to be stopped and the remaining animals were later retired to smaller zoos in the last few years. Now there are only five elderly females left, the last male in the country having died in 2014 at Rockhampton. *Sulawesi Black Macaque (Macaca nigra) – one pair at Tasmania Zoo The last remnants of the breeding group formerly at Perth, originating with animals imported from Singapore Zoo and Jersey Zoo (UK) in the 1990s. The last animals were sent to Tasmania Zoo in 2008 (there were also two Perth-bred males at Mareeba). Of the remaining pair, the male had gone from Perth to Mareeba in 2003, and then to Tasmania when Mareeba (by then called Shambala) closed in 2013; the female had gone direct Perth to Tasmania in 2008 as part of a larger group (2.2 animals). *Dusky Langur (Trachypithecus obscurus) – four animals at Adelaide The group at Adelaide is descended from three founder members: a wild-caught female confiscated by airport Customs as a baby in 1989, a female imported from Singapore Zoo in 2001, and a male from Twycross Zoo (UK) in 2004. A male imported from Wuppertal Zoo (Germany) in 1989 died without breeding. There have been a number of babies bred in the group. The 1989 female and 2004 male both died in 2015, the 2001 female died in 2016 (?), and there are now just four sibling animals (2.2) left at the zoo. *Francois' Langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) – Mogo; Taronga One pair was imported by Taronga from Nagoya Zoo (Japan) in 2004, a second pair from Beijing Zoo (China) in 2010, and a female from Blijdorp Zoo (Netherlands) in 2012. The original pair has since been exported (in 2013 and 2014). First bred at Taronga in 2009 and several years since. Mogo has two males from Taronga (since late 2016?). *Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) – Adelaide; Darling Downs; Melbourne; Mogo; National Zoo; Tasmania Zoo; Western Plains Zoo Except for Tasmania Zoo which only has a lone male originally bred at Melbourne, all the other holding zoos have breeding pairs, most of which have produced young. Adelaide has two family groups, some individuals of which were bred there and others of which were imported from Edinburgh in 2006, San Francisco in 1997 and Auckland in 2006. Melbourne's pair is a male imported from Germany in 1991 and a female bred at WPZ in 1997. Mogo's pair was imported from Edinburgh in 2006. National's pair were obtained in 2016, with a male from Orana Park (NZ) and a female from Mogo. The pair at WPZ came from Adelaide in 1989. *White-cheeked Gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) – Adelaide; Melbourne; Perth; Taronga Adelaide's pair are a male born at Duisburg Zoo (Germany), imported 2006, and a female born at Melbourne. Melbourne's current pair (arrived 2017) is a Perth-bred female and a male imported to Perth from Toledo Zoo (USA) in 2016; Melbourne's previous pair were both wild-born, the male imported in 1978 from Nagoya Zoo (Japan) [still at the zoo] and the female from Brownsville Zoo (USA) in 1981 [died 2017]. Perth's original pair were wild-caught (imported direct in 1974) - the male is still alive and partnered with a Melbourne-bred female. Perth's other pair is a male imported from France c.2010, and a Perth-bred female. Taronga's pair came from Perth in 2010: the male was born at Doue la Fontaine (France), imported 1999, while the female was born at Wellington Zoo (NZ), imported 2005. *White-handed (Lar) Gibbon (Hylobates lar) – Gorge; Mogo; Western Plains Zoo Formerly the commonest of the gibbons in Australia, now just a few elderly animals left. The pair at Western Plains came from Melbourne in 1982, where they had been born. The three males at Gorge are also ex-Melbourne. The two females at Mogo are likely to be ex-Melbourne also. *Silvery (Javan) Gibbon (Hylobates moloch) – Mogo; Perth The current breeding pair at Perth were imported in 1992; the male was born at Berlin Zoo (Germany) and the female at Assiniboine Park Zoo (Canada). The breeding pair at Mogo are a male bred at Perth and a female from Howletts (UK). Both zoos have bred several young. Taronga formerly also had a pair, the male from Howletts and the female bred at Perth; after the death of the male in 2009, the female was sent to Howletts. *Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii) – Adelaide; Melbourne; Perth Adelaide has 1.1 - the male Kluet was born at Jersey Zoo (UK) in 1995, and imported in 2003 to Taronga. The female is Puspa, who was born at Perth in 1975. Female Karta, born at San Diego Zoo (USA) in 1982 and imported to Adelaide in 1992, died in January 2017. Melbourne has a breeding pair: male Santan born at Toronto Zoo (Canada) in 1977 (imported in 1987) and female Maimunah born at Zurich Zoo (Switzerland) in 1986 (imported in 1992); plus their two offspring, male Menyaru born 2003 and female Dewi born 2010. Perth has a large number (usually between ten and fifteen), initially established with one pair (male Atjeh and female Puan) imported in 1968 from the private zoo of the Sultan of Johore. They were imported along with two female Bornean Orangutans (named Binte and Mawas); all three females bred at Perth but all the hybrids were exported to Indian zoos. Currently Perth only has Sumatran Orangutans. Atjeh died in 1996; the current two breeding males at Perth are Hsing-Hsing, born at Singapore Zoo in 1975 (imported in 1983), and Dinar, born at Toronto Zoo (Canada) in 1987 (imported 2004). All other Orangutans at Perth were bred there. Animals bred at Perth have been used for reintroductions to the wild in Sumatra. *Hybrid Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus X Pongo abelii) – two at Melbourne; two at Taronga Melbourne has two hybrid females, Kiani (aka Suma, born 1978), and her daughter Gabby (aka Kamil, born 1990); both were bred at Melbourne. Taronga has a male Jantan (born 1987) and a female Willow (born 1985); both were bred at Taronga. All of these animals are non-breeding. *Common Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) – Monarto; Rockhampton; Taronga The first Chimpanzee in an Australian zoo was probably a female at Taronga in 1909. Today Taronga's breeding group is one of the most successful in the world. Currently about 20-strong, it is descended from six animals imported between 1947 and 1970; many Taronga-bred animals have been exported worldwide. In late 2015 Taronga imported two new females from Givskud Zoo (Denmark) and one female from Warsaw Zoo (Poland). Of the other major zoos, Melbourne last held Chimps in 1993 (the remaining going to Taronga); Perth last held them in 1999 (1.2 from Taronga, exported to Ishikawa Zoo in Japan); and Adelaide last held them in 2009 (2.0, one bred at Adelaide and the other bred at Taronga, which went to the new Chimp exhibit at Monarto). Monarto's group was started with four males in 2009 (the two from Adelaide and two imported from Wellington Zoo in NZ) and four females in 2010 (imported from Burgers Zoo in the Netherlands). Rockhampton originally had two Taronga-descended brothers from Natureland Zoo in Queensland, obtained in 1986 (one died in 2013), but in 2012 obtained the last two animals (0.2) from Mogo Zoo and in 2015 imported two more (1.1) from Ramat Gan (Israel). The original Chimps at Mogo were a brother-sister pair from Bullens (ex-circus) obtained in 2006, followed by a father-daughter pair imported from Willowbank (NZ) in 2009; the NZ male died in 2009 and the Bullens male in 2011. The Chimp enclosure at Mogo now houses Gorillas. *Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) – Melbourne; Mogo; Taronga; Werribee First kept at Melbourne in 1973 when a wild-caught pair arrived from Gabon, with the first baby born to this pair in 1984; further animals have come from Jersey Zoo (UK), Howletts (UK) and Taronga. Werribee holds surplus males from Melbourne (since 2011). Taronga's first gorilla was imported from Africa in 1959; they displayed seven individuals through the 1960s and 70s. Their current animals are a mix of animals from Apenheul (Netherlands), La Vallee des Singes (France), and Melbourne, along with ones bred at Taronga. Mogo holds a family group from Taronga (since 2013), based around animals imported from Apenheul (Netherlands) in 1996.